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Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called:

a

After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav experiences fear of any woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav's reaction best illustrates:

b

The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Hutz vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful:

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Rising divorce rates over the past 40 years are partly a consequence of:

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Latent learning can occur in the absence of:

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Latent learning can occur in the absence of:

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The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of:

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Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:

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Almost half the birds in the yard were brown cardinals and the rest were bright red cardinals, so Jimmy perceived them as two distinct groups of birds. This best illustrates the principle of:

...

Research on people aged 65 and over has shown that:

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Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly ________ bits of information.

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The process of retrieval refers to:

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Who emphasized that perceptions are learned through experience?

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Kinesthesis refers to the:

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The gatecontrol theory attempts to explain how:

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Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?

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Human personality shows the greatest stability during:

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After corrective eye surgery, adults blind from birth are likely to have the greatest difficulty in visually distinguishing between stimuli that differ in:

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The most light-sensitive receptor cells are the:

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Who emphasized that we repress anxiety-arousing memories?

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Kohlberg emphasized that morality is heavily influenced by:

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When one monkey sees a second monkey touch four pictures in a certain order to gain a banana, the first monkey learns to imitate that sequence. This best illustrates:

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Under very dim levels of illumination:

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Monkeys raised in total isolation have been observed to:

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The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulation that a person needs to detect a stimulus:

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After receiving a couple of traffic tickets for speeding, Masako no longer drives faster than the legal speed limit. This best illustrates the impact of:

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The human capacity for storing long-term memories is:

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The phenomenon of color constancy best demonstrates that:

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The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a:

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Some of Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This illustrates the process of:

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The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:

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We remember words that lend themselves to clear and distinct mental images better than we remember abstract low-imagery words. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the processes of understanding and memory.

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Shape constancy refers to our perception of an object as unchanging in shape regardless of changes in the:

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It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old. This best illustrates the importance of:

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Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as:

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Experiments evaluating the impact of subliminal self-help tapes indicate that they:

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More than a year after the 1989 San Francisco earthquake, people who directly experienced the event could still vividly recall their exact whereabouts at the time of the incident. This clear recall best illustrates ________ memory.

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Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation?

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Evidence that organisms are biologically predisposed to learn the associations that most readily aid their survival has been provided by:

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Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because:

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After Pavlov had conditioned a dog to salivate to a tone, he repeatedly sounded the tone without presenting the food. As a result, ________ occurred.

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Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way of facilitating:

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During the course of a day, people may unconsciously encode the sequence of the day's events. This best illustrates

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A neural hotline runs between the area of the brain that receives olfactory information and limbic centers associated with:

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Crystallized intelligence refers most directly to a person's:

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Mr. Schlenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionally sending notes of appreciation to his hardworking employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of:

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Which of the following is true of physical development in adult life?

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The Harlows' studies of infant monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that body contact promotes:

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Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the:

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After hearing stories of things they both had and had not actually experienced with "Mr. Science," preschool children spontaneously recalled him doing things that were only mentioned in the stories. This best illustrates:

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Mr. Johnson spends time each day caressing and rocking his infant daughter. This time together should serve most directly to promote:

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Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called:

...

For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of _______ memory.

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Compared to adults, children are more susceptible to:

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A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient's fear.

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The process of getting information into memory is called:

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An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?

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Lolita vacillates between acting rebellious toward her parents and high school teachers and behaving with compliance and respect. Erikson would have suggested that Lolita's inconsistency illustrates:

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The process by which the lens changes shape so as to focus the image of an object on the retina is called:

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Golf instruction that reinforces short putts before attempting to reinforce long putts best illustrates the process of:

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Who is likely to be the most popular student in the fifth-grade class?

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The low notes on a piano always produce ________ sound waves than the high notes.

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As adults grow older, they are most likely to show a decline in their ability to remember:

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Most researchers who have examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that:

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Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were:

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A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.

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Memory is best defined as:

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When a CS is not paired with a US, the subsequent fading of a CR is called:

...

After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcoholism may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ________ in classical conditioning.

...

Although several students in the classroom are talking loudly, Jim's attention is focused only on what his girlfriend is saying. In this instance, the girlfriend's voice is a:

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Some people are better than others at detecting slight variations in the tastes of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of

...

With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. Her experience best illustrates the importance of:

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Compared to 40 years ago, Americans are marrying at a(n):

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The somatosensory cortex is activated by ________ sensations.

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In describing what he calls the seven sins of memory, Daniel Schacter suggests that encoding failure results from the sin of:

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Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called:

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The letters Y, M, O, M, R, E are presented. Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word "MEMORY." This provides an illustration of:

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For older children and adults, stressful life experiences such as being raped are not likely to be:

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Hair cells protrude from the:

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