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this is from all of the chapters we have learned in Science

Naturally

min. characteristics: _________ ocurring

Inorganic

min. characteristics: _________--made by life proscesses

Solids

min. characteristics: ______

composition

min. characteristics: definite chemical ___________

atoms, crystalline

min. characteristics: orderly arrangement of _____; ____________ solids

magma

some crystals can form from _____, hot melted rock from under the earth

large

when magma cools slowly crystals are _____

small

when magma cools quickly crystals are _____

solutions

crystals can form from _________ as water evaporates

silicates

silicon, oxygen, and one or more other elements

oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron

four most abundant recources in earths crust (in correct order)

Moh's Scale

the ____________ compares minerals hardness

luster

way a mineral reflects light

streak

color of mineral in powdered form

cleavage

mineral breaks along smooth, flat surfaces

fracture

mineral breaks with uneven, rough surfaces

gem

rare and beautiful minerals

ore

mineral containing a substance that can be mined at a profit

vein mineral

some elements dissolve, travel through rock weaknesses and are called ____________ deposits

titanium

__________ is an ore from ilmenite and rutile

mineral

naturally ocurring inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition

crystal

solid in which atoms are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern

hardness

measure of how easily a mineral is scratched

specific gravity

ratio of a minerals weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water

salt, cubic

main characteristics of halite

iron ore, red brown streak

main characteristics of hematite

aluminum ore

main characteristics of bauxite

titanium ore

main characteristics of rutile

yellow coloring

main characteristics of ochre

cleavage, used in cosmetics

main characteristics of mica

quartz

hexagonal, nonmetallic, colorless

gold-15, pyrite-5

gold specific gravity compared to pyrites SG

magnetite

magnetic

calcite

double image

talc

soapy, white, chalky

graphite-2, galena-7.5

graphite Specific Gravity compared to Galenas SG

crystalline

atoms that are arranged in repeating patterns over and over again

cubic

cube crystal shape

orthorhombic

6 rectangular sides

hexagonal

crystal with six sides

tetragonal

4 rectangular sides and 2 square sides

monoclinic

one side is unequal

triclinic

three sides are unequal

magma, solution

crystals can occur from _____ or _________

Cullinan Diamond

largest uncut diamond ever discovered in Africa

Hope diamond

diamond that has reputation of giving its owner bad luck

rutile, ilmenite

the two minerals containing titanium

magma

hot, melted rock material beneath earth's surface

crystal

solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern

silicate

mineral that contains oxygen and silicon and usually one other element

hardness

measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched

luster

describes the way a mineral reflects light from its surface; metallic/nonmetallic

specific gravity

ratio of a minerals weight compared to the same volume of water

streak

color of a mineral when it is rubbed against a tile

cleavage

physical property of some minerals that causes them to break along smooth, flat surfaces

fracture

physical property of some minerals that causes them to break with uneven, rough, or jagged edges

gem

highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful

ore

a mineral or a rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for a profit

rock

mixture of minerals, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other material

rock cycle

model showing processes that create and change rock

James Hutton

Recognized the rock cycle in 1788 by observing siccar point, scotland

intrusive

igneous rock created below the surface

extrusive

igneous rock created at the earths surface

basaltic

dark colored dense igneous rocks

granitic

less dense and light colored igneous rock

andesitic

balanced composition and density than basaltic or granitic

foliated

mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel layers or bands

non foliated

mineral rains grow and rearrange but do not form layers

sedimentary rocks

form in layers

detrital

sedimentary rocks made from broken fragments of other rocks

red sandstone

sedimentary detrital

mica schist

metamorphic foliated

granite

igneous intrusive granitic

slate

metamorphic foliated

pumice

igneous granitic extrusive

scoria

igneous basaltic extrusive

obsidian

igneous extrusive granitic

quartzite

metamorphic non foliated

marble

metamorphic non foliated

conglomerate

sedimentary detrital

gneiss

metamorphic foliated

shale

sedimentary organic

Intrusive, Extrusive, Balsaltic, Granitic

Igneous rock come in four groups. They are...

Foliated, Non-Foliated

Metamorphic rock comes in two groups. They are...

Detrital, Chemical, Organic

Sedimentary rock comes in three groups. They are...

Granite

Ex. Igneous, Intrusive, Granitic

Gabbro

Ex. Igneous, Intrusive, Basaltic

Obsidian, Pumice

Ex. Igneous, Extrusive, Granitic--2

Basalt

Ex. Igneous, Extrusive, Basaltic

Gniess, Slate

Ex. Metamorphic, Foliated--2

Quartzite, Marble

Ex. Metamorphic, Non-Foliated--2

Breccia, Conglomerate, Siltstone, Sandstone, Shale

Ex. Sedimentary, Detrital--5

Limestone, Rock Salt

Ex. Sedimentary, Chemical--2

Limestone, Coquina, Chalk, Coal

Ex. Sedimentary, Organic--4

Granite

Gneiss -->

Shale

Slate -->

Basalt

Schist -->

Limestone

Marble -->

Sandstone

Quartzite -->

rock

mix of minerals or rock fragments

rock cycle

model that shows how rocks form through time

igneous rock

rock formed when lava or magma cools and hardens

lava

molten rock that flows from volcanoes onto earths surface

intrusive

igneous rock that contains large crystals and formed from magma under earth

extrusive

igneous rock that has fine grains and cooled from lava quickly at earths surface

balsaltic

dense dark colored igneous rock-rich in magnesium and iron-poor in silica

granitic

light colored igneous rock-less dense than balsaltic rock

metamorphic rock

heat and pressure act on other rocks to change form, composition or both

foliated

metamorphic rock where you can see layers

non-foliated

metamorphic rock where you can't see layers

sediments

loose materials that have been moved by wind, water, etc.

sedimentary rock

when sediments are cemented and compacted together

cementation

with Sedimentary rock, when sediments are held together by natural cements that are produced by water in rocy soil

shale

clay makes...

S D

rock and type: red sandstone

M F

rock and type: mica schist

I I G

rock and type: granite

M F

rock and type: slate

I E G

rock and type: pumice

I E B

rock and type: scoria

I E G

rock and type: obsidian

M N

rock and type: quartzite

M N

rock and type: marble

S D

rock and type: conglomerate

M F

rock and type: gneiss

S O

rock and type: shale

siltstone

silt makes...

sandstone

sand makes...

conglomerate

gravel makes...

continental drift

a hypothesis that sll the continents drifted apart to their current location

Pangaea

is a large landmass that broke apart 200 years ago

seafloor-spreading

a theory that Harry Hess made where hot, less dense material below the Earth's crust rises toward the surface at mid-ocean ridges

plate tectonics

is a theory where the Earth's crust and part of the upper mantle are broken into sections

plates

are broken sections that move on a plasticlike layer of the upper mantle

asthenosphere

a plastic like layer below the lithosphere

convection current

is a cycle of heating, cooling, and sinking

continental drift

Wegners hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large land mass that broke apart two million years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions

Pangaea

large ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together

seafloor spreading

Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upwards towrds the surface at a mid-ocean ridge

plate tectonics

thory that earths crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle

plate

a large section of Earths oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the asthenosphere

lithosphere

rigid layer of earth made of crust and part of the upper mantle

asthenosphere

plasticlike layer of earth on which the lithospheric plates float and move on

convection current

current in earths mantle that transfers heat in earths interior and is the driving force for a plate

divergent

boundry that moves apart

convergent

boundry that moves together

transform

boundry that moves side be side

Japan

EX:O-O convergent

Andes

EX:O-C convergent

See More

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