Life Span Developmental Psychology

180 terms by nuggybuggy

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Flashcards that go along with the book by Kathleen Stassen Berger, "The Developing Person Through the Life Span," 8th edition.

Science of human development

Seeks to understand how and why all people, everywhere, of every age, change or remain the same over time.

Empirical

The science is based on observation and experimentation, rather than theory alone.

The Scientific Method

A way to answer questions that requires empirical research and databased conclusions.

The five basic steps of Scientific Method

1. Pose a research question.
2. Develop a hypothesis.
3. Test the hypothesis.
4. Draw conclusions.
5. Report the results, allowing for replication.

Hypothesis

A specific prediction that can be tested.

Replication

To repeat a test of a research hypothesis and to try to obtain the same results using different participants.

Nature

Refers to all the traits that a person inherits from his or her parents.

Nurture

Refers to all the environmental influences that affect development.

Critical Period

A time when a particular type of developmental growth must happen if it is ever going to happen.

Sensitive Period

A time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen, although it may still happen later.

Two variables that interact to affect the likelihood that a child will commit a violent crime are:

a. Past child abuse
b. A variant of the gene that produces the enzyme MAOA

Dynamic-Systems Theory

A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.

Life-Span Perspective

Takes into account all phases of life.

Multidirectional

Change is appearent in each aspect of life and in every direction.

Continuity

Stability in development.

Discontinuity

Lack of stability in development.

Multicultural

Culture promotes customs, values, and perceptions that guide human life by a group and transmitted across generations.

Multidisciplinary

An integrative framework that involves research and insights from many academic disciplines.

Multicontextual

Development occurs in many contexts including physical surroundings and family constellations.

Plastic

Individuals can be molded as time goes on, by their circumstances, efforts and unexpected events.

Ecological-Systems Approach

Takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment. (It was first emphasized by Urie Bronfenbrenner who later renamed it Bioecological)

The Ecological Model

Consists of Microsystems, Exosystems, Macrosystems, Mesosystems, and Chronosystems.

Microsystems

Elements of the immediate surroundings such as family, and friends, school and religious classes.

Exosystems

Local institutions such as school system, religious organization, and workplace.

Macrosystems

The larger contexts, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes.

Mesosystems

Refers to interactions among systems, as when parents and teachers coordinate to educate a child.

Chronosystems

Historical time conditions that affects the other systems.

Cohort

A group of people who, because they were born within a few years of each other, experience many of the same historical events and cultural shifts.

Socioeconomic Status---SES

Determined by an individuals income, wealth, education, place of residence, and occupation.

Ethnic Group

A collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, usually sharing a language, culture, and religion.

Race

A misleading social construction for a group of people who are regarded--by themselves or others, as distinct on the basis of appearence.

Mirror Neurons

Cells in a person's brain the respond to the observed actions of others in the same way they would if the observer had done that action.

Scientific Observation

Requires research to record behavior systematically and objectively.

Experiment

Designed to establish the cause of behavior.

Independent Variable

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.

Dependent Variable

The variable measured in an experiment.

Survey

Information collected from a large number of people by interview, questionnaire, or some other means.

Cross-Sectional Research

Groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with regard to the variable under investigation.

Longitudinal Research

The same group of individuals is studied over a period of time to measure both change and stability as they age.

Cross-Sequential Research

Follows a group of people of different ages over time, thus combining the strengths of the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods.

Correlation

Result indicating degree of relationship between the the two variables.

Quantitative Research

Collects data that are expressed with numbers.

Qualitative Research

Collects non-numerical discriptions of participants' characteristic behaviors and ideas.

Code of Ethics

A set of moral principles that guide the research of Developmental psychologists and other scientists.

Institutional Review Board---IRB

A group within an educational or medical institution whose purpose is to ensure the research is ethical and follows established guidelines.

T/F---In Scientific Method, research findings should be made available to other scientists.

True

The fetus develops fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days after conception. This is an example of...

A Critical Period

In the science of human development, "nurture" refers to:

Environmental influences.

As we age, losses occur in some domains, while gains are made in others. This is consistent with the _____________ nature of development.

Multidirectional

A group of middle school students would be considered to be....

A cohort

Parental choice for a child's first name reveals....

Cohort effects.

T/F---Sometimes SES is called "social class."

True

T/F---Scientifc observation involves observing and recording behavior.

True

In a study of the effects of nutrition on school performance, test scores would likely be a....

dependent variable.

In an experiment, the group that receives the 'special' treatment is called the __________ group.

Experimental

This is a drawback of longitudinal research.

Over time, participants may withdraw, move away to an unknown address, or die.

What does it mean when a correlation exists between two variables.

There is a relationship between the two variables.

Compared to qualitative research, quantitative research is more...

easily translated into numbers and categories.

Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of....

both nature and nurture.

The distinctive characteristic of development that says that changes does not always occur in a straight line is:

Multidirectional

A church is an example of this portion of the Ecological Model.

Exosystem

T/F--Members of a cohort experience the same historical events.

True

The science of human development seeks to understand what?

How and why people change over time.

Socioeconomic status refers to what?

Social class

Values, customs, clothing, and dwelling are part of a group's what?

Culture

Plasticity highlights the fact that a person's developmental traits can do what?

Change over time.

The observation method is limited because of what?

It does not provide information as to what causes the behavior.

To establish what causes a behavior, what research method must be used.

Experiment

What research method primary data source is gained from interviews and questionnaires.

Survey

This research method involves collecting data repeatedly on the same person as they age.

Longitudinal

The research that asks open-ended questions and obtains answers that are not easily translated into numbers is called what?

Qualitative Research

This is an example of ethical standards for research with children.

Obtaining consent from both the parents and the children.

A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.

Developmental Theory

What 3 things do theories do?

1. Theories produce hypotheses
2. Theories generate discoveries
3. Theories offer practical guidance

What type of theories are comprehensive, enduring and widely applied?

Grand Theories

List the three grand theories?

1. Psychoanalytic Theory
2. Behaviorism
3. Cognitive

Define Psychoanalytic Theory

A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.

Who believed that Development in the first six years occurs in 3 stages, each characterized by sexual interest and pleasure centered on a particular part of the body?

Sigmund Freud

Name the 3 stages in Freud's theory?

1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic

What is another name for Freud's theory?

Psychosexual

When does the Oral Stage begin?

In infancy

What body part is associated with the Oral stage?

The mouth

When does the Anal Stage begin?

In early childhood

What body part is associated with the Anal Stage?

The anus

When does the Phallic Stage begin?

In preschool years

What body part is associated with the Phallic Stage?

The penis

There are two other stages that Freud mentions, name them.

Latency stage and Genital stage.

Freud believed that sexual needs were quiet and that psychic energy was put into schoolwork and sports during what stage?

Latency stage

Happens at puberty and lasts throughout adulthood.

Genital Stage

He stressed cultural diversity, social change, and psychological crisis throughout the life span that is characterized by a particular challenge or developmental crisis.

Erik Erikson

Name Erikson's 8 developmental stages.

1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generatively vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair

Name Erikson's stage that states "Babies either trust that others will care for the basic needs, or develop mistrust about the care of others."

Trust vs. Mistrust

Name Erikson's stage that states "Children either become self-sufficient in many activities, or doubt their own abilities."

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Name Erikson's stage that states "Children either want to undertake many adult like activities or internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents. They feel either adventurous or guilty."

Initiative vs. Guilt

Name Erikson's stage that states "Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior, unable to do anything as well as they wish they could."

Industry vs. Inferiority

Name Erikson's stage that states "Adolescents try to figure out 'Who am I?' They establish sexual, political, religious, & vocational identities or are confused about what roles to play."

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Name Erikson's stage that states "Young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others because the fear of rejection and disappointment."

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Name Erikson's stage that states "Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family, or they stagnate."

Generatively vs. Stagnation

Name Erikson's stage that states "Older adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life as meaningful whole or despairing at goals never reached."

Integrity vs. Despair

How does Erikson's stages differ from Freud's Stages?

They emphasize each person's relationships to family and culture, not sexual urges.

A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. It is also called Learning Theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.

Behaviorism

Argued that, if psychology was to be a true science, psychologists should examine only what they could see and measure: Behavior, not irrational thoughts and hidden urges.

John B. Watson

Believe that development occurs in small increments. A person learns bit by bit over a long time. Because change is cumulative, behaviorists describe no specific stages.

Learning Theorists

The process by which responses become linked to a particular stimuli.

Conditioning

Conditioning is also known by this name.

Stimulus-Response Conditioning

Name two types of conditioning.

1. Classical
2. Operant

The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning. Also called Respondent Conditioning.

Classical

He was studying digestive process in dogs when he discovered that the dogs salivated before they received their food.

Ivan Pavlov

The learning involves an association between two stimuli.

Classical Conditioning

The behavior is involuntary.

Classical Conditioning

The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted. Also called Instrumental Conditioning.

Operant

The behaviorist most associated with operant conditioning is?

B. F. Skinner

The behavior is involuntary.

Operant Conditioning

The learning involves an association between a response and an outcome.

Operant Conditioning

A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person.

Reinforcement

An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.

Social Learning

Believed that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.

Albert Bandura

The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actons of others and then copies them.

Modeling

The belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter their social context.

Self-efficacy

A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time.

Cognitive Theory

He believed that to understand human behavior, one must understand how a person thinks.

Jean Piaget

What are Piaget's four age-related period or stages?

1. Senorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational

Infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world.

Senorimotor

Children think magically & poetically, using language to understand the world.

Preoperational

Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally.

Concrete Operational

Adolescents and adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally.

Formal Operational

A state of mental balance.

Cognitive Equilibrium

An imbalance that causes confusion.

Cognitive Disequilibrium

A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.

Information processing

These are multicultural and multidisciplinary.

Newer Theories

An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interactions of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.

Sociocultural Theory

The pioneer of the Sociocultural perspective. In his view, each person schooled or not, develops competencies taught by more skilled members of society, who are tutors or mentors in an apprenticeship in thinking.

Lev Vygotsky

An American psychologist who was best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers.

Harry Harlow

Vygotsky's term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by older and more skilled members of society.

Apprenticeship in Thinking

A metaphorical area or "zone," surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.

Zone of Proximal Development

Humanism and Evolutionary theory are known as this.

The Universal Perspective

A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background.

Humanism

He was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of self-actualization. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a "bag of symptoms."

Abraham Maslow

Name the 5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.

1. Physiological
2. Safety & Security
3. Love and Belonging
4. Respect and Esteem
5. Self-Actualization

Which level focuses on "Needing food, water, warmth, and air?"

Physiological

Which level focuses on "Feeling protected from injury and death?"

Safety & Security

Which level focuses on "Having loving friends, family, and a community (often religious)?"

Love and Belonging

Which level focuses on "Being respected by the wider community as well as by oneself?"

Respect and Esteem

Which level focuses on "Becoming truly oneself, fulfilling one's unique potential while appreciating all of humanity?"

Self-Actualization

All plants, insects, birds, and animals developed over billions of years as life evolved from primitive cells to humans.

Evolutionary Theory

Name the two long-standing, biological basic drives for every species.

Survival and Reproduction

The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over generations, to become more frequent.

Selective Adaptation

This theory contributes: Have made us aware of the impact of early-childhood experiences, remembered or not, on subsequent development.

Psychoanalytic theories

This theory contributes:Has shown the effect that immediate responses, associations, and examples have on learning, moment by moment, and over time.

Behaviorism

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set