Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents
Portuguese ship that was small but strong
sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, the first European known to have done so.
Vasco de Gama
commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
His voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement which divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal
conquerors from Spain
Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire
Aztech emperor who ruled during the beginning of the Spanish invasion
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire. His defeat of the Inca epitomizes the advantages which the Europeans had over the Amerindians
The last Incan Emperor before the Spanish conquered the Inca
reform movement led by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others that divided Christianity
German priest and professor who started the Protestant Reformation through his 95 Theses
List of criticisms with the Catholic Church that started the Protestant Reformation
grants of salvation in return for money
Created a branch of Christianity that centered around the idea of predestination
English branch of Protestantism
period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent in response to the Protestant Reformation
group of people that participated in the Catholic Reformation that brought some people back to the Catholic Church
Edict of Nantes
granted tolerance to the Protestants in France in 1598
The Thirty Years War
war between Protestants and Catholics in Germany (broke out in 1618)
Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty that ended The Thirty Years War
English Civil War
Civil War in England that resulted in the King of England losing much of his power
new vision of science (developed during 17th and 18th centuries); relied on reason
Polish astronomer who developed a heliocentric theory of the Solar System
Italian astronomer who improved the telescope and supported Copenicus' views on the Solar System
described basic principles of motion and gravity
doctrine that a monarch derives his or her power directly from God
The king of France from 1643-1715. His rule is seen as the epitome of absolutist monarchy
limited monarchy (constitutional monarchy)
king shared power with a parliament
The economic system of large financial institutions-banks, stock exchanges, investment companies-that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy.
companies organized commercial ventures by allowing investors to buy and sell shares which shared the risk of business ventures
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks.
a form of government where the monarch has the power to rule their land freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force
Dutch East India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in Asia.
association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonization.
New World settlers of European descent born in the New World
mixed Spanish-American ancestry
people of European and African descent ancestry
middle-level status between Europeans and pure minorities (made up of mezitos and mulattoes)
king's representatives in the New World who were given much leeway their ability to rule in the name of Spain or Portugal
system which gave encomenderos, or Spanish settlers, the right to force natives to work
system of forced labor in Peru, used as a basis by the Europeans to create a new forced labor system on the natives
practice of Europeans to essentially sell years of their freedom in exchange for passage to the New World
the dramatic widespread exchange of the animals, plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World to New World)
clockwise network of sea routes between Africa, America, and Europe
the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were taken to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade
galleons between Manila and Mexico
Region of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe from the 1470s onward.
the act of freeing slaves, done at the will of the owner.
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.
The technique of enhancing immunity by exposing patients to dried mucous taken from those already infected.
trades of slaves and other goods between africa, England, europe, the west Indies, and the new world
Sulemain the Magnificent
most glorious Ottoman emperor (ruled 1520-1566)
elite Ottoman military group
young Christian boys who became bureaucratic slaves to the sultan (Janissaries)
head of the imperial Ottoman bureaucracy; took care of day-to-day work
heirs to Ali; shiite clerics
descendant of Timur and Gengis Khan; founded the Mughal Empire
descendants of the Timurids who began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of India by the late 17th and early 18th centuries
grandson of Babur; ruled the Mughal Empire from 1556-1605. Demonstrated tolerance to Hindus and Rajputs and developed strong military and empire.
Mughal Empire tomb dedicated to a shah's wife
Hindu practice of suicide of widows by jumping on husband's pyre
seclusion for women
religious leader of Sikhism
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
Finished the process of expelling Mongols - centralized czar's power
Russian nobility, resisted attempts at modernization
Peter the Great
Russian ruler who westernized Russia - desired warm water port
Peoples of the Russian empire who lived outside farming villages, often as outlaws. Led the conquest of Siberia in 16th & 17th centuries.
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire.
an Italian Jesuit priest, and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China Mission, as it existed in the 17th-18th centuries.
served as transmitters of science and technology to China
group of samurai who were left leaderless; avenged their master's honor. Became emblematic of the loyalty, sacrifice, persistence, and honor that all good people should preserve in Japan
powerful daimyo of Edo (modern-day Tokyo), named himself shogun in 1603, initiating the most powerful and long-lasting of all Japanese shogunates
Sailed for Spain and tried to complete Columbus' westward route. In the end his voyage was the first to circumnavigate the world.
English king who ruled with absolute power. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church
English Queen who ruled for 44 years and provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity
Holy Roman Empire
By the 1500's this was more of a union of territories. It was ruled by Charles V but consisted mostly of German peoples and was continually being pulled apart until the 30 Years War brought much of it to an end