GACS Chemistry Exam Review

79 terms by EBradley 

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If a series of measurements agree closley but differs widely from the actual value , these measurements are

precise but not accurate

In division and multiplicaion , the answer must not have more sig figs than the

number in the calculation with the fewest number of sig figs.

The measure of the amount of matter in an object is

mass

A unit used to describe all the numbers known with certainty plus one estimated digit is

significant figures

The SI unit for temperature is

kelvin

the general equation for an inversley proportional relationship between two variables is

xy=k

If x and y are indriectly proportional, then when x increases y

decreases

The amount of energy requried to raise the temperatrue of 1-gram of water 1 C is

specific heat

the direction in the flow of heat energy is

from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature

heat energy is measured in units called

Joules

The vertical column of blocks on the periodic table are called

groups

The derived unit for specific heat is

J/ g - C

The elemnts of the Periodic table that are generally unreacitve are

Inert/ noble gases

On the Periodic table , the metals are located

to the left of the red stair step line

A mixture that s not uniform throughout is referred to as

heterogeneous

Th Periodic table of elements is comprised of __ Periods or Series

7

The Specific heat for water is

4.184 J/ g- C

The combination of 2 or more kinds of matter, each of which retains it's own properties is a

mixture

An atom of Carbon is a

pure substance

The most abundant state of matter in the universe is

plasma

In which state of matter would the particles be the closest?

liquid

In which state of matter would the particles have the weakest bonds?

gas

Which of the following is an intensive property?

color

The basic unit of matter is

atom

When the temperature of a substance increases, the substance is

absorbing heat energy

According to the color code of the periodic table , elemtns that are liquids at room temperature are

blue

Most of the elements on the Periodic table are

solids

Chemical change is

a change that transforms into another substance

the symbol q in the equation , q=m Cp triangle t, means

heat energy

An example of a homogeneous mixture is

salt and water

Who is the english school teacher who studied chemistry and formulated principles of an Atomic theory that is recognized today?

Dalton

The behavior of the cathode rays produced when exposed to a magnetic field, led scientist to conclude that the rules

were composed of negatively charged particles

In Rutherford's gold foil experiment, most of the particles

passed through the foil

One of the colclusions Rutherford made about the structure of an atom is

an atom contains a small,dense,positively charged central region

The atomic mass listed on the periodic table is the

average atomic mass of all isotopes that exist for that element.

As the mass number of the isotopes of an element increases, the number of protons

remains the same

Avagadro's constant is

the number of particles in mole of a pure substance

The mass of a neutron is

about the same of a proton

The nucleus of most atoms is composed of

tightly packed protons and neutrons

The charge on an atom is

neutral

The smallest unit of an elemnt that can exist either alone or in combinatino with other such particles of the same or different elements is

neutron

Isotopes of an element contain different numbers of

neutrons

The mass number of an elements represents the number of

protons and neutrons

An atom is mostly

space

The scientist credited with the discovery of the electron

Thomson

The elements on the modern periodic table are arranged according to increasing

atomic number

The elements that make up the 5f group are the

actinide series

If an atom has the first two energy levels filled with the maximum amount of electrons, how many will it total?

10

An electron dot diagram represents

the electron arrangement in the outer shell.

When writing the complete elctron notation, the coefficients represent

the energy level

Atoms having less than 4 electrons in their outer shell will

lose them

when writing the complete electron notation , the superscript represents

the number of electrons

Single atoms of the periodic table have a _______ electrical charge

neutral

The scientist credited with the discovery of the Periodic law is

Mendeleev

The "d" block of elements on the periodic table are referred to as the

Transitional elements

Atoms with more than 4 electrons in their outer shel will

gain till they reach 8

when writing the complete electron notation, some of the numbers are not grouped together. the reason is

the energy levels overlap

Atoms that have 4 electrons in their outer shell

lose or gain.

No two electrons in the same atom can have the same

full set of quantum numbers

Credited with the discovery of the Noble(Inert) gases.

Ramsay & Strutt

The arrangement of elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same group or family is

the periodic law.

Ramsay and Strutt discovered a unique group of unreactive elements which he added to the periodic table as the

noble gases

In the quantum numbers, the 3rd number represents the

orbital

For the majority of atoms to become stable, they need __ electrons in their outer shell

8

For a neutral atom to be negativly charged, it will

gain electrons

A neutral group of atoms held together by ionic bonds is a

formula unit

Unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms form a

polar covalent bond

Electronegativty is the ability of an atom to

attract electrons

The numerical range for two atoms to have a ionic bond would be a difference in electronegativity of

anything above 1.70

The VSPER theroy is used for predicting

the geometric shape of molecules

In order to draw a Lewis structure, one sould know the

number of valence electrons for each number

A dash [---] in Lewis structure represents

a pair of shared electrons

Two identical atoms covalently bonded together form a

diatomic model

A group of atoms covalently bonded together with a charge is a

polyatomic ion

The numerical range for two atoms to hae a nonpolar covlent bond would have have a difference in electronegatvity of

0.00 -- 0.30

Equal sharing of electrons between two atoms create a

nonpolar bond

The atomic symbol in a Lewis structure represents the

nucleus

Another name for a positive ion is

cation

The geometric shapes for molecules is based on

the repelling of the electron pairs

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