What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health.
A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
The development of chronic diseases has a connection to poor diet and:
can be reduced by food choices along with lifestyle choices.
Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?
Which of the following is an example of a macronutrient?
Which of the following is an organic compound?
Which of the following is characteristic of an essential nutrient?
Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?
What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment?
Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group
What is the AMDR for fat?
The source of valid nutrition information is
The term "____" has no legal definition but is often used on food labels to imply wholesomeness.
A study conducted in several countries where a high intake of fish and a low intake of animal fat were correlated with a low rate of breast cancer death is an example of a(n)
Data from a national survey showed that on a given day almost 2/3's of our population consume inadequate
Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called ____ foods.
Of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States, ____ are related to nutrition, and 1 to alcohol consumption.
Which of the following terms was coined in an attempt to identify foods that might lend protection against chronic diseases by way of the nutrients or nonnutrients they contain?
Nutrition-related health objectives for the nation have been published by the:
Department of Health and Human Services.
The credential "R.D." displayed by a dietitian's name indicates registration with:
the American Dietetic Association.
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are appropriately used for all of the following except
estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems.
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines encourage Americans to consume less
The percentages of the Daily Values on food packages are given in terms of a person requiring ____ calories each day.
Which of the following groups is de-emphasized in the USDA MyPlate Food Guide?
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended for healthy adults and children ages _____ and older.
If vitamin C has been added to cranberry juice, the label must include
a and b
The Nutrition Facts Panel on a food label lists the following information for amounts per serving 111 calories; 23 calories from fat. What percentage of the calories are provided by fat?
When referring to the DRI recommended intakes, it is important to remember that
they are based on the latest available scientific research.
Concerned about the toxic effects of added nutrients in fortified foods and supplements, when eaten in addition to staple foods, scientists established the ____ category of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety.
Which of the following establishes population-wide average requirements used by nutrition policymakers?
Estimated Average Requirements
Which of the following foods is exempt from listing ingredients on the label?
none of the above
Any food providing 10% or more of the Daily Value for a nutrient is considered to be a _____ source of the nutrient.
Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as
The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake is that the value for energy intake is not generous.
The absence of a Tolerable Upper Intake Level for a nutrient implies that it is safe to consume in any amount.
A major guideline for healthy people is to limit calorie intakes and obtain more and varied selections of ____.
all of the above
As more research is showing the possible benefits of phytochemicals for health, the best way to approach consuming them in your diet is to
include a variety of fruits and vegetables containing phytochemicals in your diet.
The DRI Committee recommended a diet that contains ____% of its calories from carbohydrate.
Amounts of which types of lipids must be listed on food labels?
b and c
The psychological desire to eat is referred to as
All of the following are involved in signaling satiation except
Waist circumference reflects the degree of ____ in proportion to body fatness.
A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates
Excess fat around the ____ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body.
central abdominal area
A woman of normal weight may have, on the average, ____ percent of the body weight as fat.
One pound of body fat is equal to ____ calories.
Quick, large changes in weight are most likely the result of all of the following except
changes in fat.
About ____ percent of a meal's energy value is used up in stepped-up metabolism in the five or so hours following each meal.
Hunger makes itself known roughly ____ hours after eating.
A very-low-carbohydrate diet may be accompanied by
All of the following factors are associated with a higher basal metabolic rate except
Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?
a and b [high in fiber,high in protein]
A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed
A person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight.
What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet?
Body mass index is unsuitable for use with:
b and c [athletes & pregnant women]
After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?
An effective method for losing weight would be to:
keep records of your food intake and exercise to spot trends.
By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except
a non-essential nutrient.
True statements concerning the water-soluble vitamins include
b and c [They are easily excreted in the urine & they can be leached out of foods by cooking in water.]
All of the following are fat-soluble vitamins except
Vitamin A plays an important role in
a and c [maintenance of body linings & reproduction]
The vitamin D deficiency disease in adults is known as
Vitamin E serves as
A non-food source from which vitamin K can be obtained is
The B vitamins act as part of
Which of the following B vitamins is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?
An uninformed strict vegetarian is at special risk for ____ deficiency.
Which of the following is not one of the functions of vitamin C?
maintains bone density
A woman who is on a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss may have difficulty maintaining an adequate level of the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate. What foods being avoided in her diet are most likely to cause this?
grain foods and cereals
Which of the following is the most potentially toxic of all vitamins?
Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?
Which of the following would provide the highest amount of vitamin E?
Wheat Germ Oil
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of
What is one symptom of a beta-carotene toxicity?
bright yellow skin
The USP symbol on the label of a vitamin supplement means that:
a and c [it contains the ingredients as listed on the label & it will dissolve in the digestive tract]
The active form of vitamin A stored in the liver is:
Name of thiamin deficiency disease
A food unusually rich in thiamin
Deficiency of this vitamin leads to cracks and redness at corners of the mouth
Exposure to this leads to destruction of riboflavin
A food source that supplies a substantial amount of people's riboflavin intake
Used for synthesis of niacin
Overconsumption of this food has resulted in pellagra
High doses are known to lower blood cholesterol
Deficiency of this vitamin is induced by feeding raw egg whites
This vitamin is a component of acetyl-CoA
Toxicity from this vitamin is known to cause irreversible nerve damage
Prevention of neural tube defects is related to increased intake of this substance by pregnant women
One of the first symptoms of folate deficiency
Required to maintain nerve fiber sheath
Required for absorption of vitamin B12
A conditionally essential nutrient
The antiscorbutic factor
Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of this substance
Excess intake of vitamin C may aggravate this disorder
A concentrated source of vitamin C
What is the body's most indispensable nutrient?
Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?
source of energy
What is the major intracellular electrolyte?
Over half of the body's magnesium is stored in the
The best source of phosphorus is
Chromium works closely with
When trying to get adequate iron intake in your diet it is helpful to
combine vitamin C foods with non-heme iron to increase absorption.
Which of the following makes up about 60 percent of the body's weight?
Which of the following minerals hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth and makes the enamel resistant to decay?
Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
Deficiency of which of the following minerals is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
Which of the following nutrients has functions similar to those of vitamin E?
Bone strength in later life depends on:
the formation of dense bones during youth.
Copper is an essential nutrient because of its role in:
helping to form hemoglobin and collagen.
The principal food source of chloride is:
Sulfate is adequate in a diet that contains sufficient:
If a person has a deficient intake of calcium in the diet, what will be the result?
no change in levels of calcium in the blood because calcium will be pulled from the bones
Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Which of the following statements about selenium levels in the body is accurate?
selenium works as an antioxidant to protect body chemicals from oxidative damage
In the early minutes of an activity, ____ provides the majority of energy the muscles use to go into action.
A person who continues exercising moderately for longer than ____ minutes begins to use less glucose and more fat for fuel.
Strategies which help endurance athletes maintain their blood glucose concentrations for as long as they can include
a & b [eating a high-carbohydrate diet regularly & taking in glucose during endurance activities]
The first symptom of dehydration (besides thirst) is
During most exercise the optimal beverage for replacing fluids is
Moderate use of caffeine by athletes
may assist performance.
Protein contributes an average of about ____ percent of the total fuel used during activity and during rest.
Recommended grams protein per kilogram of body weight each day for an endurance athlete is:
1.2 - 1.4
Sports drinks offer some advantages over water for athletes who
need to replenish electrolytes.
Which of the following are most prone to iron deficiency?
a & b [female athletes & endurance athletes]
Iron-deficiency anemia impairs physical performance because iron helps deliver the muscles' oxygen.
Glycogen depletion occurs after about ____ hour(s) of vigorous activity.
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
putting a demand on muscles by making them work harder.
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?
A benefit of cardiorespiratory endurance training is that:
the heart muscle grows larger and stronger.
Active people do not need extra fluid in cold weather.
An endurance athlete can lose _____ of fluid an hour.
Anaerobic glucose breakdown produces a compound called _____ that accumulates in the tissues and blood.
Muscle growth is stimulated by:
physically demanding activity.
Carbonated beverages are not a good choice for meeting an athlete's fluid needs because they:
make a person feel full quickly and may limit fluid intake.
A low-birthweight baby is defined as one who weighs less than 5 pounds.
A low-birthweight baby is nearly 40 times more likely to die in the first year of life than is a normal-weight baby.
A nonpregnant woman requires 1600 calories per day to maintain her desirable body weight. How many calories per day would she need if she were in the third trimester of pregnancy?
A nonpregnant woman requires 46 grams of protein per day. How many grams per day would she need if she became pregnant?
At eight weeks of development, the fetus is characterized by:
a & c [a beating heart & a fully formed digestive system]
A pregnancy weight gain of _____ pounds is recommended for women who are at their appropriate weights.
25 - 35
A woman who craves nonnutritious substances during pregnancy:
a & b
A woman who has just become pregnant is used to drinking 2 pots of coffee a day. What adjustments should she make in her caffeine consumption?
she should limit coffee consumption to one coffee cup a day
All pregnant women need generous amounts of _____ to spare their protein and to provide energy.
An advantage for the mother of breastfeeding her infant would be:
conserving her iron stores for several months.
Folate fortification has lowered the number of neural tube defects that occur each year.
Most babies are born with enough _____ to last about half a year.
A nursing mother produces about _____ ounces of milk a day.
When compared to formula, breast milk offers the following protection against infections and allergies:
breast milk contains antibodies against diarrhea caused by a rotavirus.
If you want to make your own baby foods at home it is best to:
puree a small amount of cooked food before seasonings have been added.
The addition of foods to a baby's diet should be governed by all of the following considerations except:
how often the baby cries.
It is desirable to begin feeding the infant iron-fortified cereals by about _____ months.
Which of the following should be introduced first when feeding a baby?
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can result in which of the following fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children?
mood disorders and problem behaviors diagnosed in preschool years
Risk factors for gestational diabetes include all of the following except:
low BMI before pregnancy.
Which of the following defines nursing bottle tooth decay?
Marked tooth decay of an infant due to prolonged exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle
A child's appetite fluctuates after the age of:
A child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of
A six-year-old child needs approximately _____ calories a day.
At mealtimes the best way to be sure children are receiving nutritional adequacy from the foods they eat is to:
allow them to make all the food decisions determined by their favorites.
Hyperactivity in a boy in kindergarten who cannot concentrate on his school work can be controlled by:
making sure he has regular mealtimes.
In boys, the adolescent growth spurt peaks at:
School lunches are designed to provide at least _____ of the recommended intake for certain nutrients.
The best way to introduce new foods into to toddler's diet is to:
introduce them at the beginning of the meal when the child is hungry.
The single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is by
The life-threatening food allergy reaction of anaphylactic shock is most often caused by:
eggs, peanuts, and milk.
Which of the following is always a component of allergies?
Which of the following worsens acne?
Absorption of _____ appears to increase with aging.
After the age of 50, the intake recommendation for energy assumes a _____ percent reduction in energy output per decade.
Older adults should drink at least _____ cups of fluid a day to provide needed water.
What nutrition practice can reduce the effects of arthritis?
antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can reduce inflammation in joints
Television food ads have positive effects on children's nutrition.
A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that
there are more social benefits to congregate meals.
What is sarcopenia?
Loss of muscle mass and strength