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Archaea

The domain that contains microbes with isoprenoid glycerol diether or diglycerol tetraether lipids in their membranes and archaeal rRNA (among many other features)

Bacteriorhodopsin

A transmembranous protein to which retinal is bound; it functions as a light-driven proton pump, allowing photophosphorylation without chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll; found in the purple membrane of halophilic archaea

Halophile

A microorganism that requires high levels of sodium chloride for growth

Hyperthermophile

A microorganism that grows optimally at temperatures greater than 85 degrees C

Methanogen

Strictly anaerobic archaea that derive energy by converting carbon dioxide, hydrogen gas, formate, acetate, and other compounds to either methane or methane and carbon dioxide

Pseudomurein

A peptidoglycan-like polymer found in some archaeal cell walls; it is distinguished from peptidoglycan by the presence of L-amino acids, N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid (NAT) and beta (1 to 3) glycosidic bonds

Sensory rhodopsin

A form of rhodopsin found in halobacteria and cyanobacteria that senses the spectral quality of light

Thermoacidophiles

Microorganism that grow best at high temperatures and low pH

Euryarchaeota

Occupy many different ecological niches and have a variety of metabolic patterns; includes methanogens, extreme halophiles, sulfate reducers, and many extreme thermophiles with sulfur-dependent metabolism

Crenarchaeol

Cyclopentane ring-containing lipids unique to Crenarchaeota; used as a biomarker for the presence of crenarchaeotes in natural environments such as marine plankton

Selenocysteine

21st amino acid incorporated into two specific regions of archaeal mRNA; synthesized from serine; found in all domains of life

Pyrrolysine

22nd amino acid present only in several methanogenic archaea and a single bacterium; derived from lysine

Pseudomurein, chondroitin sulfate-like polysaccharides, or protein walls

What do archaeal cell walls have instead of peptidoglycan?

Have ether instead of ester linkages, long tetraethers, and pentacyclic rings

How do the membrane lipids of archaea differ from those of other organisms?

Increased core hydrophobicity, packing density, and hydrogen bonds

How are proteins made more rigid in thermophiles?

Increased supercoiling

How is DNA protected from denaturation in thermophiles?

Irregularly lobed, spherical cells

What shape are cells in the genus Sulfolobus?

Thermoacidophiles

What type of "-philes" are members of the genus Sulfolobus?

Long, thin, bent or branched rods

What shape are cells in the genus Thermoproteus?

Glycoprotein

What is the cell wall of members of the genus Thermoproteus composed of?

Hot springs

Where are members of the genus Thermoproteus found?

Halobacteria

Which group(s) of Archaea use bacteriorhodopsin in their purple membrane?

Outward proton transport

What is the function of bacteriorhodopsin?

Inward chloride ion transport

What is the function of halorhodopsin?

Purple membrane

Modified region of the plasma membrane containing bacteriorhodopsin molecules

Proteorhodopsin

Rhodopsin found in α- and β-proteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes

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