MGMT 600 Midterm

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First 5 chapters

sensitive line

the point at which individuals become defensive or protective when encountering information about themselves that is inconsistent with their self concept or when encountering pressure to alter their behavior

Areas of self-awareness

emotional intelligence, personal values, cognitive style, orientation towards change

emotional intelligence

the ability to manage oneself and to manage relationships with others

personal values

the core of the dymanics of behavior and play so large a part in unifying personality.

cognitive style

the manner in which individuals gather and process information

orientation towards change

the methods people use to cope with change in their environment

core self-evaluation

captures the essential aspects of personality

importance of self-awareness

predictors of managerial performance, achieving life success, performing effectively in teams, competent decision making,life-long learning, job performance, and job satisfaction

locus of control

the attitude people develop regarding the extent to which they are in control of their own destinies

4 characteristics of EI

1- the ability to diagnose and recognize your own emotions
2- the ability to control your own emotions
3- the ability to recognize and diagnose the emotions displayed by others
4- the ability to respond appropriately to those emotional cues

instrumental values

values that prescribe desirable standards of conduct or methods for attaining an end

terminal values

values that prescribe desirable ends or goals for the individual

three dimensions of cognitive style

1 - knowing
2 - planning
3 - creating

internal locus of control

feeling one is in charge of his destiny

external locus of control

feeling one is not in charge of her destiny

core self-evaluation

the overal positive self-regard, the extent to which people value themselves or feel proficient as individuals

four components of self-evaluation

1. self-esteem
2. self-efficacy
3. emotional stability
4. locus of control

high core self-evaluation

personality uniqueness, job satisfaction, job performance, life happiness

types of stressors

time stressors
encounter stressors
situational stressors
anticipatory stressors

time stressors

stress from too much to do in too little time

encounter stressors

stress that result from interpersonal interactions

situational stressors

stress that arises from the environment in which a person lives or from a person's circumstances

stages of stress

alarm stage and resistance stage

alarm stage

acute increases in anxiety or fear if the stressor is a threat or by increases in sorrow or depression if the stressor is a loss.

resistance stage

defensive mechanism start and the body begins to store up excess energy

Five types of defense mechanisms

1. aggression
2. repression
3. withdrawal
4. fixation
5. exhaustion

types of coping strategies

enactive, proactive, temporary

enactive strategies

create a new, environment for the individual that does not contain the stressors, permanent but takes a long time and lots of effort to enact

proactive strategies

enhance your ability to handle stress and increasing personal resiliency, moderate effort and time required, long lasting effects

reactive strategies

on the spot remedies to temporarily relieve stress, takes little effort or time to enact, but is short lived

relationship to job and stress

higher levels have less stress due to higher control, higher discretion, high interest and low demand; older tend to have less stress

small wins approach

making small changes, incrementally, starting with the easy to change, creates momentum

steps of analytical problem solving

1. define the problem
2. generate alternative solutions
3. evaluate and select an alternative
4. implement and follow up on the solution

define stage

find facts,causes, information gathering, who owns it, state problem not solutions

alternative solutions stage

do not evaluate, gather feedback from all parties, short and long term goals, build on ideas

evaluate and select stage

compare to a standard, and to goals, evaluate systematically, consider side effects, state selected explicitly

implement and follow up

get feedback, implement as decided upon, monitor, evaluate on problem solution

issues with analytical problem solving

doesn't always address complicated problems well
jump to conclusions, not defining problem, defining symptoms not problems, possible alternatives are limited, first acceptable solution is usually accepted, accept satisfactory not optimal, implemented before problem is defined

brainstorming rules

1. no evaluation of any kind is permitted as alternatives are being generated
2. wildest and most divergent ideas are encouraged
3. quantity of ideas takes precedence over quality
4. participants should build on and modify ideas of others

four types of creativity

1. imagination
2. improvement
3. investment
4. incubation

imagination

create new, risk taking, revolutionary, the ipad

improvement

careful methods, building on what's already been done, process control, clarifying problems

investment

rapid goal achievement, competitive approach, attack problems directly

incubation

coordination among individuals, teamwork, empowering people to foster creativity

creative problem solving roles

idea champion, sponsor, orchestrator, rule breaker

idea champion

the person who comes up with creative solutions

sponsor

the person who helps provide the resources, environment and encouragement for the idea

orchestrator

the person who brings together cross-functional groups and necessary political support

rule breaker

the person who goes beyond organizational boundaries and barriers to ensure success

communication skills and success

80% of managements time is spent in communication
face to face communication skills are most critical in determining promotability

coaching

managers must pass along advice or information or set standards, typically when employees are incompetent, lack information, or lack ability

counseling

addressing problems that stem from attitudes, personality clashes, defensiveness or other factors tied to emotions

8 principles of supportive communications

1. congruent
2. descriptive
3. problem-oriented
4. validating
5. specific
6. conjunctive
7. owned
8. supportive listening

congruent

thoughts and feelings match

descriptive

describing an objective occurrence, your reaction and offering alternatives

problem oriented

focus on problems not on people

validating

statements that communicate respect, flexibility, collaboration, and areas of agreement

specific

focus on specific events or behaviors, and avoiding general, extreme, or either-or statements

conjunctive

statements that flow from what's been said previously and facilitate interaction

owned

use "I" statements, taking responsibility

supportive listening

using a variety of appropriate repsonses, with a bias toward reflective responses

sources of personal power

expertise, personal attraction, effort, legitimacy

sources of postional power

centrality, flexibility, visibility, relevance

expertise

task-relevant knowledge

personal attraction

desirable characteristics associated with friendship

effort

higher-than-expected commitment of time

legitimacy

behavior consistent with key organizational values

centrality

access to information in a communication network

flexibility

amount of discretion vested in a position

visibility

degree to which task performance is seen by influential people in the organization

relevance

alignment of assigned tasks and organizational priorities

influence strategies

1. retribution
2. reciprocity
3. reason

retribution

coercion and intimidation

reciprocity

exchange and ingratiation

reason

persuasion based on facts, needs or personal values

importance of personal power

political competence, intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble, mobilize resources, control agendas, help out talented subordinates, access to top decision makers

problems with abuse of power

institutional v. personal power,
using power to do good,
insensitive/arrogant/betrayal/not delegating

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