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Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration are located in the?

medulla oblongata

The ____ provides the principal link between nervous and endocrine system.

hypothalamus

Specialized _____ cells form the secretory component of the choroid plexus.

ependymal

What structure is covered by many blood cells and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?

pia matter

The brain requires substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are?

internal carotid and vertebral arteries

Which of the following is a property of blood-brain barrier?
All of the above

-Astrocytes surround CNS capillaries
-It is absent in portion of hypothalamus
-It is generally permeable to lipid soluble
-The capillarity is interconnected by tight junctions

Cerebrospinal fluid enters the blood circulation at the?

aranchoid granulations

What contains a spider-web like network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?

subarachnoid space

The cells that cover the outer surface of the CNS capillary endothelial cells are the?

astrocytes

Hydrocephalus or "water in the brain" may result from?

blockage of CSF circulation or excessive CSF production.

The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in?

medulla oblongata

The nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus

-in the medulla oblongata
-relay somatic sensory info to the thalamus

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium functions of the?

cerebellum

The cerebellum can be temporally damaged by stroke or temporally affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor is known as?

ataxia

Stimulation of the reticular formation is known as?

increased consciousness.

The medulla oblongata relays auditory information to the?

inferior colliculi

The tectum of the mesencephalon contains the?

superior and inferior colliculi

Damage to the superior colliculi would interfere with the reflex ability to?

react to bright light

The reflex movement of the head towards loud noise is directed by mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?

inferior colliculi

Damage to the corpora quadrigemina would interfere with?

visual and auditory reflex of the head and neck

Function of the hypothalamus

-secretes oxytocin
-produces ADH
-controls autonomic centers
-regulates body temperature

The anterior nuclei of the thalamus?

are part of the limbic system

The posterior nuclei of the thalamus include the?

lateral and medial geniculate nuclei

The ____ receives visual input from the geniculates.

superior colliculi

The optic tracts that carry visual information from the retina to the

lateral geniculates

Function of thalamus

processes sensory info and relays it to cerebrum

The _____ relay auditory information to the auditory cortex.

medial geniculates

Damage to the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus leads to?

reduced ability to regulate body temp.

The ___ is important in storage and recall of new long-term memories.

hippocampus

Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of?

Parkinson's disease

The primary motor cortex is the surface of the

precentral gyrus.

The corpus callosum is composed of

commissural fibers

The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the _____ cortex.

primary sensory

Cortical regions that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called ____.

association

The region of the brain responsible for predicting the consequence of events or actions is the?

prefrontal cerebral cortex

After suffering a stroke Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the _____ lobe.

left frontal

After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow caused damage to the?

occipital lobe

If the corpus callosum is surgically cut,
(all of the above)

- the two cerebral hemispheres operate independently
- objects touched by the left hand can be recognized but not verbally identified
- conscious decisions are made without regard to sensations from the left side
-symptoms of the "disconnection syndrome" appear

Integrative centers concerned with performance of complex processes are restricted to either the left or the right hemisphere.These complex processes include

-speech
-understanding spatial relationships
-writing
-mathematical computation

Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect?

voluntary motor activity

Excitation of neurons in the basal nuclei would lead to?

increased muscle tone

_______ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.

Aphasia

The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is?

olfaction

The cranial nerve that has 3 major branches is the

trigeminal

Difficulty of swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve?

glossopharyngeal and vagus

Which of the cranial nerves is named for the fact that it "wanders," that is innervates structures through the thorax and abdomen?

X; Vagus

Which sensation does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry?

hearing and equilibrium

At the optic chiasm

axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross.

Function of Vagus nerve

visceral sensation and motor control

Function of Olfactory tract nerve

olfaction; smell

Why is injury to the medulla oblongata frequently fatal?

This region of the brain contains the centers for regulating the cardiovascular system and initiating respiration, both vital to life. In addition, most sensory and motor tracts pass through the medulla oblongata between higher and lower centers of the nervous system.

A patient develops a clot that blocks the blood supply to the right cerebral hemisphere. What signs and symptoms would you expect as a result of this blockage?

Because the right primary motor cortex controls the muscles of the left side of the body, you would expect left-sided paralysis whose extent and severity will depend on the extent of brain injury. Similarly, the patient will experience somatic sensory loss on the left side of the body. Higher-order functions such as memory, planning, spatial orientation, and emotional control could be damaged but many language skills would be spared.

The suprarenal medullae secrete?

both epinephrine and norepinephrine

We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because?

sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions

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