Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration are located in the?
The ____ provides the principal link between nervous and endocrine system.
Specialized _____ cells form the secretory component of the choroid plexus.
What structure is covered by many blood cells and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?
The brain requires substantial blood supply. The vessels that deliver blood to the brain are?
internal carotid and vertebral arteries
Which of the following is a property of blood-brain barrier?
All of the above
-Astrocytes surround CNS capillaries
-It is absent in portion of hypothalamus
-It is generally permeable to lipid soluble
-The capillarity is interconnected by tight junctions
Cerebrospinal fluid enters the blood circulation at the?
What contains a spider-web like network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?
The cells that cover the outer surface of the CNS capillary endothelial cells are the?
Hydrocephalus or "water in the brain" may result from?
blockage of CSF circulation or excessive CSF production.
The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in?
The nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus
-in the medulla oblongata
-relay somatic sensory info to the thalamus
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium functions of the?
The cerebellum can be temporally damaged by stroke or temporally affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor is known as?
Stimulation of the reticular formation is known as?
The medulla oblongata relays auditory information to the?
The tectum of the mesencephalon contains the?
superior and inferior colliculi
Damage to the superior colliculi would interfere with the reflex ability to?
react to bright light
The reflex movement of the head towards loud noise is directed by mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?
Damage to the corpora quadrigemina would interfere with?
visual and auditory reflex of the head and neck
Function of the hypothalamus
-controls autonomic centers
-regulates body temperature
The anterior nuclei of the thalamus?
are part of the limbic system
The posterior nuclei of the thalamus include the?
lateral and medial geniculate nuclei
The ____ receives visual input from the geniculates.
The optic tracts that carry visual information from the retina to the
Function of thalamus
processes sensory info and relays it to cerebrum
The _____ relay auditory information to the auditory cortex.
Damage to the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus leads to?
reduced ability to regulate body temp.
The ___ is important in storage and recall of new long-term memories.
Damage to the substantia nigra causes a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine. This causes a gradual, generalized increase in muscle tone, which is the main symptom of?
The primary motor cortex is the surface of the
The corpus callosum is composed of
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the _____ cortex.
Cortical regions that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called ____.
The region of the brain responsible for predicting the consequence of events or actions is the?
prefrontal cerebral cortex
After suffering a stroke Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the _____ lobe.
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow caused damage to the?
If the corpus callosum is surgically cut,
(all of the above)
- the two cerebral hemispheres operate independently
- objects touched by the left hand can be recognized but not verbally identified
- conscious decisions are made without regard to sensations from the left side
-symptoms of the "disconnection syndrome" appear
Integrative centers concerned with performance of complex processes are restricted to either the left or the right hemisphere.These complex processes include
-understanding spatial relationships
Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect?
voluntary motor activity
Excitation of neurons in the basal nuclei would lead to?
increased muscle tone
_______ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.
The only sensation that is received directly by the cerebrum is?
The cranial nerve that has 3 major branches is the
Difficulty of swallowing may be a sign of damage to which cranial nerve?
glossopharyngeal and vagus
Which of the cranial nerves is named for the fact that it "wanders," that is innervates structures through the thorax and abdomen?
Which sensation does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry?
hearing and equilibrium
At the optic chiasm
axons from the nasal halves of each retina cross.
Function of Vagus nerve
visceral sensation and motor control
Function of Olfactory tract nerve
Why is injury to the medulla oblongata frequently fatal?
This region of the brain contains the centers for regulating the cardiovascular system and initiating respiration, both vital to life. In addition, most sensory and motor tracts pass through the medulla oblongata between higher and lower centers of the nervous system.
A patient develops a clot that blocks the blood supply to the right cerebral hemisphere. What signs and symptoms would you expect as a result of this blockage?
Because the right primary motor cortex controls the muscles of the left side of the body, you would expect left-sided paralysis whose extent and severity will depend on the extent of brain injury. Similarly, the patient will experience somatic sensory loss on the left side of the body. Higher-order functions such as memory, planning, spatial orientation, and emotional control could be damaged but many language skills would be spared.
The suprarenal medullae secrete?
both epinephrine and norepinephrine
We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because?
sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions