Art Final Questions

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Which of Raphael's works includes a self-portrait?

The School of Athens

Which artist best represents all the ideals of the High Renaissance in one person?

Raphael

. Which four artists define the High Renaissance?

Raphael, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Titian

Upon which moment in the story of Jesus's Last Supper did Leonardo focus in his portrayal?

Jesus's statement that one of the disciples would betray him

What is the word for the system of shading using light and dark?

Chiaroscuro

In which of his works did Leonardo explore the relationship of the circle and the square to the ideal human body?

Vitruvian Man

Which unusual feature did Leonardo's notebooks have?

. The writing is mirror image

Which is the term for the effect in painting of softer or smoky edges?

Sfumato

Which did Leonardo think was the best time of day for lighting?

dusk

Which theme gave Raphael early fame?

Virgin and Child

Which was Raphael's first commission in Rome?

a Virgin and Child for the Pope

Whose influence on Raphael is seen in the architectural setting of the School of Athens?

Leonardo

Which is the term for a painting or drawing used as a model or pattern for another work?

Sketch

Which work has Michelangelo's signature?

Sistine Ceiling

How does Michelangelo organize and give structure to the Sistine Ceiling?

with fictive architectural elements

What is the symbolism of the oak leaves and acorns on the Sistine Ceiling?

Old Testament

Where did Michelangelo include a self-portrait in the Last Judgement?

in Charon's boat

From where does the image of Charon ferrying his boat across the River Styx that Michelangelo uses in his Last Judgement come?

Book of Revelations

Both Bramante's and Michelangelo's plans for Saint Peter's were?

Greek Crosses

In which subject is Titian considered to be "incomparable"?

Female Nudes

Whose Last Supper was criticized because it was too grandiose, vulgar, and included dogs and foreign soldiers?

Veronese's

What did Veronese change in his Last Supper?

The architectural setting

Palladio's early training was as a?

Stonecutter

Which person's books, I quattro libri dell'architettura, have influenced great architects for centuries?

Andrea Palladio

Which building was the main inspiration for the Villa Rotonda?

The Pantheon

Thomas Jefferson's home at Monticello was most directly influenced by?

Brunelleschi

Mannerism originated in?

Florence, Italy

Which of the following is a grand country palace?

Chauteau

In which capacity was the Isenheim Altarpiece used?

treatment for ill patients

Who was the leading German Renaissance artist?

Matthias Grünewald

In which work does Dürer first use a canon of ideal human proportions?

Adam and Eve

What is typically Northern (rather than Italian) about Dürer's Adam and Eve?

the name plaque

The religious reformers were most vocal against what?

art in churches

Which invention fueled the Reformation?

Movable Metal Type

What generally happened to art in churches that became Protestant?.

It was destroyed and the walls whitewashed

Which subject became more important to artists living in newly Protestant cities?

Portraiture

What is Dürer trying to show in his Four Apostles?

that Protestant imagery was possible

Which was a new category of imagery after the Reformation?

Landscape

What did Holbein do because of harassment from reformers?

moved to England

What is the term for a series of paintings on a single subject?

Cycle

It is thought that the word Baroque may come from the word for?

an irregularly shaped pearl.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the Rococo, as opposed to the Baroque?

A Lighter Palette

Which element on Bernini's Baldacchino DOES NOT symbolize the Pope's family?

Anchors

How has Bernini incorporated the Cornaro family into his sculptural group at the Cornaro Chapel?

with eight statues of them in two theater boxes on either side

Which artist introduced intense new realism and a dramatic use of light and gesture to Italian Baroque art?

Caravaggio

Why was Caravaggio's work sometimes rejected?

It was too brutally naturalistic

Which visual quotation does Caravaggio make in The Calling of Saint Matthew?

a hand gesture from Michelangelo's Creation of Adam

Which of the following is an invention of Caravaggio's?

Tenebrism

Who had a bad temper and was always in trouble with the law?

Caravaggio

Who was one of Caravaggio's most successful Italian followers?

Artemisia Gentileschi

Who was the first woman elected to the Florentine Academy of Design?

Artemisia Gentileschi

Which strong influence is seen in the early career of Velázquez?

Caravaggio

Who had a profound influence on the nineteenth-century movement Impressionism?

Velázquez

Who was made a knight of the Order of Santiago and included their insignia on his jacket in a selfportrait?

Velázquez

Who was Spain's "most popular" Baroque painter?

Murillo

In Jan Brueghel and Peter Paul Rubens' allegory Sight, what did Rubens paint?

A Still Life

Which of the following is often considered to be the greatest group portrait ever painted?

Officers of the Harlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian, Franz Hals

. Which intaglio process uses acid to "cut" the plate?

Etching

Which artist is known for his many personal self-portraits?

Rembrandt

To whom does le Roi Soleil (the Sun King) refer?

Louis XIV of France

What was Versailles before Louis XIV?

Botanical Garden

What is Samuel Adams doing in Copley's portrait of him?

demanding that British troops leave Boston

Which philosophy provided the basis for the American and French Revolutions?

the Enlightenment

What was another name for the Enlightenment, a time of enthusiasm for scientific inquiry?

Age of Reason

Which movement did the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum stimulate?

Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism usually borrows its subject matter from where?

Neoclassicism

Which art movement was particularly interested in moral incorruptibility, patriotism, and courage?

Neoclassicism

Which art movement is characterized by fantastic or literary themes often set in a remote time or place and infused with poetic fancy or melancholy?

Romanticism

Which style is most likely to include the strong subjective feelings of the artist?

Romanticism

Which is the nineteenth-century movement that emphasized descriptive accuracy?

Realism

Which is the principle that Rousseau and other Enlightenment philosophers taught that seems to be a conscious theme in Vigée-Lebrun's Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children?

the importance of each class fulfilling their duty

What was the biannual or annual show of the French Academy called?

Paris Salon

Which is the strongest and most obvious influence on Thomas Jefferson's design for his home at Monticello?

French Rococo

David's Oath of the Horatii became an emblem for what?

the French Revolution

Which Baroque element is in David's Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard?

evocation of intense emotion

Who was one of David's most talented pupils?

Ingres

Which element of art is most important in the work of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres?

Value

Which element of art is most important in the work of Eugène Delacroix?

Color

Which artist criticized Spanish morals and manners, especially in his Los Caprichos?

Francisco Goya

Which best describes the attitude of Francisco Goya?

Humanity is violent, greedy, and foolish

Interestingly, who hung a copy of Fuseli's The Nightmare in his office?

Napoleon Bonaparte

What does "camera obscura" mean?

Dark Chamber

Who was the first person to make a permanent photographic image?

Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce

Which is an early photographic process that was a positive print made on a light-sensitized copper plate using iodine fumes, mercury vapors, and a salt water bath?

Dagurreotype

Which photographic process developed the negative from which an unlimited number of positives could be made?

Calotype

Whose landscapes were refused because they were not idealized, not peopled with biblical or classical figures, and were too sketchy and unfinished?

Rosa Bonheur

What was it that Rosa Bonheur had to get police permission in order to do?

wear men's clothing

Thomas Cole inspired a group of landscape painters in the early nineteenth-century. What were they called?

Hudson River School

What was Georges Seurat's technique called?

Pointillism

Which group of artists is well known for painting en plein air?

The Impressionists

What does en plein air mean?

in the open air

Which of the following best describes the way that Manet paints his figures?

near absence of modeling

Whose painting gave Impressionism its name?

Monet

Which group first organized exhibitions independent from the official Salon?

the Impressionists

The art of which country so greatly influenced French art in the last half of the nineteenth century that a term was coined (the country's name being the root of the term) just to describe this influence?

Saudi Arabia

Which increased in French art because of Japonisme?

Decorative Flatness

For which subject is Degas best known?

Ballet Scenes

Which Post-Impressionist artist was most influential in the development of twentieth-century abstraction?

Paul Cézanne

Who changed the Impressionist brushstroke to be more solid and rectangular and applied more according to a grid of vertical and horizontal shapes?

Paul Gauguin

Who began the concept of seeing objects from different viewpoints into the same painting?

Edvard Munch

Which is an art term that was originally a military term for the advance unit?

Avant-Garde

A strong influence on Paul Gauguin was?

Medieval Stained Glass

Which artist contributed most significantly to the emergence of expressionism?

Vincent van Gogh

Compared to the Impressionists, how does Vincent van Gogh apply paint?

longer energetic strokes

Which artist is best known for expressing anxiety and a fear of death?

Edvard Munch

Which is true of Rodin's Burghers of Calais?

their arms and hands were enlarged

How did Camille Claudel change The Waltz after the inspector from the Ministry of the Beaux-Arts saw it?

Added Drapery

Which patron became more important to artists in the last half of the nineteenth century?

The Bourgeoisie

What did Duchamp call found objects, that is, ordinary manufactured items?

Readymades

Who is considered to be a forerunner to every postmodern art movement?

Marcel Duchamp

What are the documents called wherein twentieth-century artists wrote declarations of their artistic principles?

Manifestoes

Which kind of art must communicate EXCLUSIVELY through formal means such as line, shape, color, and texture?

Nonrepresentational

The tendency to emphasize physical processes, for example, visible brushstrokes or chisel marks, is a characteristic of?

Modernism

What caused Modern art to be transformed from an embattled fringe movement to being a component of "high culture"?

state supported museums of modern art

Fauve means?

Wild Beasts

Which of the following best describes Henri Matisse's idea of what art should be or do?

a mental comforter, like a good armchair

Which of the following best describes Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz's idea of what art should be or do?

a political tool, to reach as many people as possible

For which media is Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz best known?

Printmaking

Who did Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz use for the figure of Black Anna in The Outbreak?

Herself

Which movement was organized by Kandinsky to include nine artists interested in the power of color?

Der Blaue Reiter

Which art movement was the invention of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque?

Cubism

Who seems to have named Cubism?

Louis Vauxcelles

Which is the movement where objects are broken into basic geometric shapes and knit together using Cézanne's passage technique?

Analytic Cubism

Which is the movement where motifs are created by combining simpler elements (sometimes they are actually pasted on)?

Synthetic Cubism

Multiple perspectives, i.e., seeing an object from more than one point of view, is an important pictorial device in which movement?

Fauvism

Which art movement combined Fauvist color with Analytic Cubist form in works dedicated to the modern city and modern technology?

Orphism

Which art movement aimed to attack everything old, dull, feminine, and safe and promote the masculine, including warfare and speed?

Futurism

Which work personifies the new Italian man rushing headlong into the brave new Futurist world?

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space

Who was the artist who produced the first truly nonrepresentational work of art?

Kasimir Malevich

Why, according to Duchamp, is Fountain a work of art?

The artist chose it.

What was it that the 291 tried to elevate to the level of other visual arts?

Photography

Which is an approach to making or discussing art that is focused on design, composition, and the elements of art?

Formalism

Mondrian thought that the beauty we see in nature is?

Picturesque or Sublime

The primary colors are?

Red, Yellow, and Blue.

What did Mondrian eliminate in his work?

Representational Elements

Which art movement was particularly interested in exploring Freud's ideas about the subconscious?

Surrealism

Which group would be most likely to use dream analysis, free association, automatic writing, word games, and hypnotic trances?

Surrealism

Which of the following is a technique where a person tries to encourage the subconscious to create something without rational control?

Readymade

Merit Oppenheim's most famous work intentionally confuses which element of art?

Texture

What took on new importance in the work of Henry Moore?

Motion

Alexander Calder invented?

mobiles

What makes Calder's mobiles move?

Air Currents

Who coined the name "mobile"?

Marcel Duchamp

Which group of painters worked with simplified forms, crisply defined edges, smooth brushwork, and unmodulated colors?

Precisionists

What is the title of Grant Wood's American classic of an Iowa farmer and his daughter?

American Gothic

Who modeled for Grant Wood's famous painting of an Iowa farmer and his daughter?

Wood's sister and dentist

What was the result of Dorothea Lange's photographs?

The federal government began the Farm Securities Administration

What was the movement of African-American writers, artists, and musicians that explored black experience and identity?

Harlem Renaissance

Whose photographs of African Americans in Harlem in the first half of the twentieth century conveyed a sense of racial pride and social empowerment?

James VanDer Zee

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