Soft tissue and muscle cancer

41 terms by dan_talamo 

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Lipoma

Fat tumor
benign
Most common soft tissue of adulthood.

Liposarcoma

Malignant tumor of the deep soft tissue of lower extremities and retroperitineum: 40-60 yrs.

Lipoblast

Characteristic histological cell of liposarcoma. Has a scallop nucleus

Myxoid

Containing or resembling mucus

Nodular Fascitis

Has characteristics of malignancy but is benign.
"Reactive pseudosarcoma"
Rapidly growing, poorly defined, fibroblasts are arranged randomly

Superficial fibramatosis lesion

nodules of fibrous tissues with poorly defined fascicles.
Palmar, Plantar, Penile.
No mutations of APC or beta-catenin.

Dupuytren Contracture

nodular thickening of palmar fascia

Peyronie Disease

Penile fibromatosis

Deep fibromatosis lesion

rapidly growing with infiltrative features.
Associated with APC or beta-catenin genes.
Recurrent but not necessarily malignant.

Fibrosarcoma

malignant and rare.
Herring bone pattern
May arise as radiation induced sarcoma or post burn scar

Herring bone pattern

Classical of fibrosarcoma. Hyperchromatic nuclei with increases N/C ratio. Spindle shaped

Dermatofibroma

benign fibrous tumor in skin with histocytes. Storiform (pinwheel) pattern. Foam cells.

Malignant Fibrohistiocytoma

malignant soft tissue tumor which used to be considered most common sarcoma of adults. More common in males. Storiform architecture. Use IHC stains

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Malignant Skeletal muscle tumor. Most common in adolescents. Aggressive. 3 types: embryonal, alveolar, pleomorphic

t(2:13)

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyoblast

Diagnostic cell for rhabdomyosarcoma. Tadpole or strap cells.

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma

most common rhabdomyosarcoma. Grapes in vagina. Affects the cambium layer.

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

Worst prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Central cells degenerate, drop out, and then look like alveoli cells. Midadolescents

Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma

Proximal portions of the extremities. Large multi-nucleated eosonophilic tumor cells

Synovial Sarcoma

20-40 years old. Develop on lower extremities (knee and thigh). May have calcifications that can be seen on x-ray/ Biphasic

t(X,18)

Synovial Sarcoma

Pericyte

Satellite cell/stem cell

Type 1 muscle fibers

1 slow, fat, red ox.

Type 2 muscle fibers

2 fast skinny white breasts

Segmenal necrosis

myophagocytosis which causes muscle distrophy and collagen deposition and fatty infiltration

Myophagocytosis

eating part of muscle

Fiber hypertrophy

increased load, muscle fiber splitting, large fibers divide along segment

Denervation atrophy

loss of neural input. Create a triangular shape

Spinal muscular dystophy

Infantile motor Neuron Disease. No triangular atrophy.

Chromosome 5

Spinal Muscular dystrophy

Panfascicular atrophy

clustering of small, atrophic fiber bundles

Wednig Hoffman disease

loss of spinal motor neurons

Muscular Dystrophy

progressive muscle weakness and wasting

Duchenne MD

deletion of dystrophin

Becker MD

mutation of dystrophin

Xp21

Muscular dystrophy

Myotonic dystrophy

most common adult muscular dystophy. Type 1 fibers atrophy. Facial muscle weakness

Malignant hyperthermia

rare ion-channel myopathy

Dermatomyositis

inflammatory disease of skin. Lilac/heliotrope skin rash. Upper eyelids with periorbital edema. Capillaries attacked by antibodies

Polymyositis

inflammation found in endomysium. No evidence of vascular damage. Looks cell mediated.

Myasthenia Gravis

autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Affected by loss of acetylcholine

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