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Set of flashcards for Anatomy BIOL 2401 at SHSU

Chemoreceptors

chemicals

Thermoreceptors

temperature

Nociceptors

pain, dense on skin and mucous membrane, all organs but not brain

Mechanoreceptors

physical deformation

photoreceptors

light

general receptors

widely distributed over body

Special receptors

complex sense organs of head

Interoceptors

origin in internal organs

Proprioceptors

origin of stimuli position/movement in muscles/joints

Exteroreceptors

eyes, ears sense external stimuli

Unencapsulated

nerve endings not wrapped

Free nerve endings

skin, pain, heat, cold

Tactile discs

skin, light touch

Hair receptors

entwined in hair follicles, light touch, movement of hair

Encapsulated

nerve endings wrapped in glial cells or connective tissue

Tactile Corpuscle

light touch and texture, hairless skin (palm)

Riffuni corpuscle

heavy touch, joint movements, dermis

Lamellated corpuscle

deep pressure, stretch, tickle, vibration, deep dermis, viscera

First pain

Myelinated, sharp pain, 40-100 ft/s

Second pain

unmyelinated, dull pain, 1-7 ft/s

Referred pain

visceral pain seems to be felt in other areas of body such as skin, convergence of neural pathways

Taste buds

about 4,000, tongue, soft palate, pharynx, epiglottis, cheeks, taste 80% smell, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, on papillae

Foliate papillae

parallel ridges on sides of tongue

Fungiform papillae

3 taste buds per papillae, widely distributed, food texture

Filiform papillae

nongustatory, cats use to groom, most abundant, food texture

Vallate papillae

V at back of tongue, 7-12

Taste pore

hole on epithelial surface of tongue

Olfaction

smell

Olfactory mucosa

detects scent, contains 10-20 million olfactory neurons

Ear

develops from first pharyngeal pouch

Hearing

response to vibrating air molecules

Equilibrium

sense of motion and balance

Outer ear

funnel for conducting sound to tympanic membrane

Auricle

fleshy outer ear

Auditory canal

passage through temporal bone

Gaurd hairs

protect outer end of canal

Cerumen

earwax, stops foreign particles from entering canal

Tympanic membrane

middle ear, vibrates in response to sound

Auditory (eustachian) tube

passage to nasopharynx

Auditory ossicles

Malleus, Incus, Stapes, middle ear

Bony labyrinth

filled with perilymph, similar to CSF, inner ear

Vestibule

balance, inner ear

Semicircular canals

detect rotation of head, inner ear

Cochlea

hearing, inner ear, filled with endolymph, sound waves generate nerve signals

Membranous labyrinth

interconnecting sacs and ducts, inner ear

Conjunctiva

transparent mucous membrane covering inner surface of eyelid and anterior surface of eyeball, keeps eye moist

Lacrimal gland

12 ducts, tears cleanse and lubricate eye, deliver oxygen and nutrients

Superior rectus

movement up and laterally

Medial rectus

movement medially

Lateral rectus

movement laterally

Inferior rectus

movement down and medially

Superior oblique

passes through trochlea, movement down and laterally

Inferior oblique

movement up and laterally

Aqueous humor

fluid secreted by ciliary body, posterior chamber between iris and lens, anterior chamber between cornea and iris

Lens

suspended, tension flattens lens

Vitreous body

transparent body fills vitreous chamber (posterior), keeps retina smoothly pressed against inner surface

Retina

thin transparent membrane, posterior, detached causes blurry vision and blindness if separated

Optic disc

convergence of retinal nerve fibers

Rods

night vision, saturated and nonfunctional in ordinary light

Cones

day vision, color vision, blue, green, orange-yellow, dependent on wavelength

Leprosy

leprosy bacteria blocks sense of pain in affected areas, individuals neglect minor wounds, finger/ toe loss

Diabetes

causes nerve damage, lesions can cause finger/toe/limb loss

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