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Gibbons v Ogden (1824)

NY could not grant steamship company monopoly, increased federal power over interstate commerce

Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

Marshall ruled contract clause prohibited NEW HAMPSHIRE from modifying 1769 corporate charter that establsihed Dartmouth College by altering governing structure of college

Fletcher v Peck (1810)

supreme court invalidated a state law on constitutional grounds when Cheif Justice John Marshall held that GEORGIA legislature could not revoke previous public land grants even though grants had been tainted with fraud

Marbury v Madison (1803)

established judicial review

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

states did not have power to tax the national bank, reinforces supremacy clause

Secession

formal separation from an alliance or federation

Cittenden Compromise

proposed amendment allowing slavery in West territories South of missouri compromise line

Election of 1860

The nation had been divided throughout most of the 1850s on questions of states' rights and slavery in the territories. In 1860 this issue finally came to a head, fracturing the formerly dominant Democratic Party into Southern and Northern factions and bringing Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party to power without the support of a single Southern state

Dred Scott Decision

A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

Harpers Ferry (John Brown)

Harpers Ferry contained a US Armament. John Brown, i radical abolitionist attacked the baracks only to fail in getting guns for enslvaved southerners. Later hung on Dec 2

Caning of Sumner

Sumner was beating on the floor of the Senate by Preston Brooks

Lecompton Constitution

a constitution developed by pro slavery people in kansas when it applied for statehood. had a trick that would always allow for some slavery in kansas. so, many abolitionists boycotted the polls, which lead to kansas becoming a slave state. Contributed to the slogan "Bleeding Kansas"

Pottowatomie Massacre

led by john brown, killed 5 pro-slavery settlers. led to the slogan "Bleeding Kansas"

Sack of Lawrence

1856 beginning to Bleeding Kansas; proslavery raiders shot up and burned part of Lawrence

Bleeding Kansas

Nickname given to the Kansas Terrietory because of the bloody violence there

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

Popular Soverignty

Where the people decide for themselves wether or not to have something (slavery), the right of the people to govern themselves.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Writer of UNCLE TOM CABIN, advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)

Ostend Manifesto

The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.

Gadsden Purchase

The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.

Compromise of 1850

Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC

Fugitive Slave Law

Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.

Free Soil Party

Political party organized by northerners taking the approach of free soiler; slavery should not be extended into the land of the Mexican Cession. martin van buren was their presidential candidate in 1848. "free soil, free labor, free men"

Wilmot Proviso

Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.

Mexican War

War declared in 1846 after Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande into Texas. Was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which gave the U.S. Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million to Mexico

James Polk

11th President of the United States

Annexation of Texas

Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

Nat Turner Rebellion

August 1831 55 ppl killed. 70 enslaved and free blacks traveled house to house killing every white person and freeing every slave. used knives and hatchets supressed 48 hours later, nat escaped until october 30 nat was caught tried and hung

Harriet Tubman

Former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad

Frederick Douglass

United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)

William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Lucretia Mott

A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott

Seneca Falls

Location of the first women's rights convention in 1848.

Sojourner Truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

Nativism

a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

American Temperance Union

1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drinking

Horace Mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

Dorothea Dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

Brook Farm

A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.

Emerson

United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)

Thoreau

wrote Walden and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Transcendentalist

Transcendentalists

Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.

Nullification Crisis

Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.

Cherokee Trail of Tears

The moving of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma. Only 1 out of 5 lived.

Jacksonian Democracy

this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state. Allowed maine to enter the union as a free state. Drew an imaginary line at 30 36 no slaves above the line, slaves below the line

Sectionalism

loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Adams Onis Treaty

Agreement in which spain gave up all of Florida to the United states

Rush Bagot Treaty

The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes.

Eli Whiney

The inventor of the Cotton Gin, or Cotton Engine. Revolutionized the southern plantations and make cotton profitable

Market Revolution

Dramatic increase btwn 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.

Second National Bank

Proposed by Madison in 1816, would issue national currency, private enterprise with 1/5 owned by government, stabilized economy

Tariff 1816

After the War of 1812, Britain tried to sell many of their goods to America. This hurt American companies. In response to this, America created this, which is a protective tariff.

Erie Canal

Begun in 1817 and finished in 1825, this was America's first major canal project

Era of Good Feelings

The only era in American history where one politcal party or faction dominated the politcal scene

Transportation Revolution

improvements in: roads-enabled settlers and merchants to reach the west, boats-steamboat made commercial agriculture feasible in the West, canals (eerie canal)-connected large cities to each other and made it easier to trade, railroads-connected burgeoning cities to rivers and canals

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