Gibbons v Ogden (1824)
NY could not grant steamship company monopoly, increased federal power over interstate commerce
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
Marshall ruled contract clause prohibited NEW HAMPSHIRE from modifying 1769 corporate charter that establsihed Dartmouth College by altering governing structure of college
Fletcher v Peck (1810)
supreme court invalidated a state law on constitutional grounds when Cheif Justice John Marshall held that GEORGIA legislature could not revoke previous public land grants even though grants had been tainted with fraud
Marbury v Madison (1803)
established judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
states did not have power to tax the national bank, reinforces supremacy clause
formal separation from an alliance or federation
proposed amendment allowing slavery in West territories South of missouri compromise line
Election of 1860
The nation had been divided throughout most of the 1850s on questions of states' rights and slavery in the territories. In 1860 this issue finally came to a head, fracturing the formerly dominant Democratic Party into Southern and Northern factions and bringing Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party to power without the support of a single Southern state
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Harpers Ferry (John Brown)
Harpers Ferry contained a US Armament. John Brown, i radical abolitionist attacked the baracks only to fail in getting guns for enslvaved southerners. Later hung on Dec 2
Caning of Sumner
Sumner was beating on the floor of the Senate by Preston Brooks
a constitution developed by pro slavery people in kansas when it applied for statehood. had a trick that would always allow for some slavery in kansas. so, many abolitionists boycotted the polls, which lead to kansas becoming a slave state. Contributed to the slogan "Bleeding Kansas"
led by john brown, killed 5 pro-slavery settlers. led to the slogan "Bleeding Kansas"
Sack of Lawrence
1856 beginning to Bleeding Kansas; proslavery raiders shot up and burned part of Lawrence
Nickname given to the Kansas Terrietory because of the bloody violence there
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Where the people decide for themselves wether or not to have something (slavery), the right of the people to govern themselves.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Writer of UNCLE TOM CABIN, advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Free Soil Party
Political party organized by northerners taking the approach of free soiler; slavery should not be extended into the land of the Mexican Cession. martin van buren was their presidential candidate in 1848. "free soil, free labor, free men"
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
War declared in 1846 after Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande into Texas. Was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which gave the U.S. Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million to Mexico
11th President of the United States
Annexation of Texas
Texas decides to secede from Mexico and attempts to declare its independence which eventually leads to our adoption of the land as a state although it was feared that it would cause conflict with mexico leading to war. Southern states in support of this as Texas brought slaves with it meaning it would increase agricultural profits
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Nat Turner Rebellion
August 1831 55 ppl killed. 70 enslaved and free blacks traveled house to house killing every white person and freeing every slave. used knives and hatchets supressed 48 hours later, nat escaped until october 30 nat was caught tried and hung
Former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Location of the first women's rights convention in 1848.
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
American Temperance Union
1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drinking
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
wrote Walden and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, Transcendentalist
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
Cherokee Trail of Tears
The moving of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma. Only 1 out of 5 lived.
this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Part, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state. Allowed maine to enter the union as a free state. Drew an imaginary line at 30 36 no slaves above the line, slaves below the line
loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Adams Onis Treaty
Agreement in which spain gave up all of Florida to the United states
Rush Bagot Treaty
The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes.
The inventor of the Cotton Gin, or Cotton Engine. Revolutionized the southern plantations and make cotton profitable
Dramatic increase btwn 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
Second National Bank
Proposed by Madison in 1816, would issue national currency, private enterprise with 1/5 owned by government, stabilized economy
After the War of 1812, Britain tried to sell many of their goods to America. This hurt American companies. In response to this, America created this, which is a protective tariff.
Begun in 1817 and finished in 1825, this was America's first major canal project
Era of Good Feelings
The only era in American history where one politcal party or faction dominated the politcal scene
improvements in: roads-enabled settlers and merchants to reach the west, boats-steamboat made commercial agriculture feasible in the West, canals (eerie canal)-connected large cities to each other and made it easier to trade, railroads-connected burgeoning cities to rivers and canals