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Which structure is not part of the endomembrane system?
a.chloroplast
b. nuclear envelope
c. ER
d. Golgi apparatus
e.plasma membrane

A.

Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
A. wall made of cellulose
B.chloroplast
C.centriole
D. mitochondrion
E.central vacuole

D

Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
A. ER
B.nuclear envelope
C.ribosome
D.chloroplast
E.mitochondrion

C

Which structure-function pair is mismatched?
Which structure-function pair is mismatched?
A. microtubule; muscle contraction
B.lysosome; intracellular digestion
C.ribosome; protein synthesis
D.nucleolus; production of ribosomal subunits
E.Golgi; protein trafficking

A.

Cyanide binds to at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the
Cyanide binds to at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the
A. ribosomes.
B.mitochondria.
C.lysosomes.
D.endoplasmic reticulum.
E.peroxisomes.

B.

What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
A. Golgi - ER - lysosome
B. ER - Golgi -vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
C.ER- Golgi - nucleus
D.ER - lysosomes - vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
E. nucleus- ER - Golgi

B

Which cell would be best for studying lysosomes?
A.leaf cell of a plant
B.nerve cell
C. bacterial cell
D.phagocytic white blood cell
E.muscle cell

D

Identify the correct statement about differences between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
A.Rough ER consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae, whereas smooth ER is less complex.
B. Smooth ER is part of the endomembrane system of the eukaryotic cell, and rough ER is not.
C. The outer surface of smooth ER lacks ribosomes, whereas the outer surface of rough ER has ribosomes.

C

The diameter of a typical eukaryotic cell is approximately ten times the diameter of a typical prokaryote. What is the ratio of the volume of typical eukaryotic:prokaryotic cells?
A. 1000:1
B.10:1
C. 100:1

A.

Select the correct statement describing cellular structure or function.
A.Mitochondria and chloroplasts are part of the endomembrane system of the eukaryotic cell.
B.Plant and animal cells both carry out aerobic respiration, producing ATP.
C.Only plant cells contain chloroplasts, and only animal cells contain mitochondria.

B

Which statement correctly describes an endomembrane function?
A.The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is continuous with the cell nucleus.
B.Products of the ER are usually modified during their transit from the cis to the trans region of the Golgi apparatus.
C.Secretory proteins in transit from one part of the cell to another are carried in lysosomes.

B

Choose the best description of the cell cytoskeleton.
A.The cell cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of fibers that can be quickly dismantled and reassembled to change cell shape and the position of cell components.
B.The cell cytoskeleton serves as permanent scaffolding to anchor cell components into position within the cell cytoplasm.
C.The cell cytoskeleton is similar to an animal skeleton in providing rigid internal support and structure to the cell.

A

When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells, they can achieve the finest resolution by using
A. a confocal fluorescence microscope.
B.a scanning electron microscope.
C. a phase-contrast light microscope.
D. a super-resolution fluorescence microscope.
E. a transmission electronic microscope.

E

The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
A.light microscopy provides for higher magnification than electron microscopy.
B. light microscopy provides higher contrast than electron microscopy.
C. light microscopy provides for higher resolving power than electron microscopy.
D. light microscopy allows one to view dynamic processes in living cells.
E. specimen preparation for light microcopy does not produce artifacts

D

A primary objective of cell fractionation is to
A.separate lipid-soluble from water-soluble molecules.
B.sort cells based on their size and weight.
C.separate the major organelles so that their particular functions can be determined.
D.determine the size of various organelles.
E.view the structure of cell membranes.

C

In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is
A.the percentage of carbohydrates in the component.
B. the presence or absence of nucleic acids in the component.
C. the presence or absence of lipids in the component.
D.the size and weight of the component.
E. the relative solubility of the component.

D

Which of the following correctly lists the order in which cellular components will be found in the pellet when homogenized cells are treated with increasingly rapid spins in a centrifuge?
A. vacuoles, ribosomes, nucleus
B. nucleus, ribosomes, chloroplasts
C. ribosomes, nucleus, mitochondria
D. chloroplasts, ribosomes, vacuoles
E. nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes

E

What is the reason that a modern electron microscope (TEM) can resolve biological images to the subnanometer level, as opposed to tens of nanometers achievable for the best super-resolution light microscope?
A.Electron beams have much shorter wavelengths than visible light.
B. Contrast is enhanced by staining with atoms of heavy metal.
C. The electron microscope has a much greater ratio of image size to real size.
D. The focal length of the electron microscope is significantly longer.
E. The electron microscope cannot image whole cells at one time.

A

A biologist wants specifically to examine the surfaces of different types of cells in kidney tubules of small mammals. The cells in question can be distinguished by external shape, size, and 3-D characteristics. Which of the following would be the optimum method for her study?
A.light microscopy using stains specific to kidney function
B. cell fractionation
C. transmission electron microscopy
D. light microscopy of living unstained material
E. scanning electron microscopy

E.

A newspaper ad for a local toy store indicates that a very inexpensive microscope available for a small child is able to magnify specimens nearly as much as the much more costly microscope available in your college lab. What is the primary reason for the price difference?
A.The toy microscope does not have the same fine control for focus of the specimen.
B. The toy microscope magnifies a good deal, but has low resolution and therefore poor quality images.
C. The ad agency is misrepresenting the ability of the toy microscope to magnify.
D. The toy microscope usually uses a different wavelength of light source.
E. The college microscope produces greater contrast in the specimens.

B.

What technique would be most appropriate to use to observe the movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division?
A. scanning electron microscopy
B. confocal fluorescence microscopy
C. standard light microscopy
D.super-resolution fluorescence
E. transmission electron microscopy

C.

The volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animal cells. The most reasonable explanation for this observation is that
A. plant cells contain a large vacuole that reduces the volume of the cytoplasm.
B. plant cells have a much more highly convoluted (folded) plasma membrane than animal cells.
C. animal cells are more spherical, whereas plant cells are elongated.
D. plant cells can have lower surface-to-volume ratios than animal cells because plant cells synthesize their own nutrients.
E.plant cells are capable of having a much higher surface-to-volume ratio than animal cells.

A

Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
A.Bacteria and Protista
B. Bacteria and Archaea
C. Bacteria and Fungi
D. Bacteria and Eukarya
E. Archaea and Protista

B

If radioactive deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) is added to a culture of rapidly growing bacterial cells, where in the cell would you expect to find the greatest concentration of radioactivity?
A.cytoplasm
B. endoplasmic reticulum
C. nucleoid
D. ribosomes
E. nucleus

C

One of the key innovations in the evolution of eukaryotes from a prokaryotic ancestor is the endomembrane system. What eukaryotic organelles or features might have evolved as a part of, or as an elaboration of, the endomembrane system?
A. nuclear envelope
B. chloroplasts
C. plasma membrane
D. mitochondria
E. none of these

A.

ECM proteins are made by ribosomes in which part of a eukaryotic cell?
A.Golgi apparatus
B. cytoplasm
C. mitochondria
D. nuclear envelope
E rough ER

E.

What types of proteins are not synthesized in the rough ER?
A. secreted proteins
B. mitochondrial proteins
C. extracellular matrix proteins
D. plasma membrane proteins
E. endoplasmic reticulum proteins

B

Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
A.limitation on the strength and integrity of the plasma membrane as cell size increases
B. evolutionary progression in cell size; more primitive cells have smaller sizes
C. rigid cell walls that limit cell size expansion
D. the difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
E. the need for sufficient surface area to support the cell's metabolic needs

E

Which of the following statements concerning cells of bacteria and archaea is correct?
A.Archaea contain a membrane-bound nucleus; bacteria do not.
B. DNA is present in the mitochondria of both bacteria and archaea.
C. Archaea contain small membrane-enclosed organelles; bacteria do not.
D. DNA is present in both archaea and bacteria.

D

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except
A.ribosomes.
B. DNA.
C. an endoplasmic reticulum.
D. a plasma membrane.
E. a cell wall.

C

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
A. nucleic acids
B. glycogen
C. cellulose
D. lipids
E. proteins

E

A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely
A. producing primarily cytoplasmic proteins.
B. producing primarily proteins for secretion.
C. constructing an extensive cell wall or extracellular matrix.
D. digesting large food particles.
E. enlarging its vacuole.

A

The nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of the nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would you expect to be the most likely immediate consequence?
A. the inability of the nucleus to divide during cell division
B. failure of chromosomes to carry genetic information
C. inability of the nucleus to keep out destructive chemicals
D. the loss of all nuclear function
E. a change in the shape of the nucleus

E

Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
A. ribosome
B. lysosome
C. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
D. contractile vacuole
E. mitochondrion

C

Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
A. plasmodesmata
B. rough ER
C. Golgi vesicles
D. free cytoplasmic ribosomes
E. lysosomes

B

The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?
A. Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.
B. Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
C. Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
D. Soluble proteins in the cisternae (interior) of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
E. All of the above correctly describe polar characteristics of the Golgi function.

E.

Hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles contains these hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells?
A. glyoxysome
B. central vacuole
C. peroxisome
D. chloroplast
E lysosome

E

Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?
A. Proteins that are secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes that are bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.
B. In prokaryotes, the ribosomes that are used for the synthesis of secreted proteins are located outside of the cell.
C. Prokaryotes contain large pores in their plasma membrane that permit the movement of proteins out of the cell.
D. Prokaryotes are unlikely to be able to secrete proteins because they lack an endomembrane system.
E. The mechanism of protein secretion in prokaryotes is probably the same as that in eukaryotes.

A

The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
A. rough ER
B. smooth ER
C. Golgi apparatus
D. transport vesicles
E nuclear envelope

B

Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
A. lysosome
B. mitochondrion
C. vacuole
D. Golgi apparatus
E. peroxisome

D

Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?
A. peroxisome
B. lysosome
C. mitochondrion
D. vacuole
E Golgi apparatus

B

Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
A. peroxisome
B. vacuole
C. Golgi apparatus
D. lysosome
E. mitochondrion

B

The difference in lipid and protein composition between the membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by
A. the physical separation of most membranes from each other.
B. the synthesis of different lipids and proteins in each of the organelles of the endomembrane system.
C. the modification of the membrane components once they reach their final destination.
D. the function of the Golgi apparatus in sorting and directing membrane components.
E. the transportation of membrane lipids among the endomembrane system by small membrane vesicles.

D

Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
A. the lysosome
B. membrane-bound ribosomes
C mitochondrion
D. the endoplasmic reticulum
E. the Golgi apparatus

A

The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
A. acquisition of an endomembrane system, and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi.
B anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen-the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts.
C. endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria.
D an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolved into the nucleus.

C

Which organelle or structure is absent in plant cells?
A.Golgi vesicles
B. microtubules
C. centrosomes
D. mitochondria
E peroxisomes

C

Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?
A. lysosome
B. Golgi apparatus
C. mitochondrion
D vacuole
E. peroxisome

C

Which plant cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
A. glyoxysome
B. mitochondrion
C. Golgi apparatus
D. vacuole
E. peroxisome

B

Which animal cell organelle contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen?
A. peroxisome
B. vacuole
C. lysosome
D. mitochondrion
E Golgi apparatus

A

Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in
A. vacuoles.
B. mitochondria.
C. nuclei.
D. lysosomes.
E. chloroplasts.

E

In a plant cell, DNA may be found
A in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.
B. in the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes.
C. only in the nucleus and chloroplasts.
D. only in the nucleus and mitochondria.
E. only in the nucleus.

A

A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from
A. a bacterium.
B. any kind of organism.
C any multicellular organism, like a plant or an animal.
D. nearly any eukaryotic organism.
E. an animal, but not a plant.

D

Which type of organelle is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
A. plastids
B. nuclei
C. mitochondria
D. ribosomes
E. none of these

A

Why isn't the mitochondrion classified as part of the endomembrane system?
A.Its structure is not derived from the ER or Golgi.
B. It has too many vesicles.
C. It is a static structure.
D. It is not involved in protein synthesis.
E. It is not attached to the outer nuclear envelope.

A

In a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and
A. combine the hydrogen with water molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide.
B. use the hydrogen to break down hydrogen peroxide.
C. transfer the hydrogen to the mitochondria.
D. transfer the hydrogen to oxygen molecules to generate hydrogen peroxide.

D

How does the cell multiply its peroxisomes?
A.They split in two after they become sufficiently large.
B. They are built de novo from cytosol materials.
C. The cell synthesizes hydrogen peroxide and encloses it in a membrane.
D. They bud off from the Golgi.
E. They are brought into the cell from the environment.

A

A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, whereas organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively,
A. mitochondria and peroxisomes.
B. chloroplasts and mitochondria.
C. mitochondria and chloroplasts.
D. chloroplasts and peroxisomes.
E. peroxisomes and chloroplasts.

B.

The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. In light of the endosymbiont theory for the evolutionary origin of mitochondria, where is most ATP synthesis likely to occur in prokaryotic cells?
A. on the plasma membrane
B. in the cytoplasm
C. on the inner nuclear envelope
D. on the endoplasmic reticulum
E on the inner mitochondrial membrane

A

Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
A. membrane proteins
B. cellulose fibers in the cell wall
C. cytoskeletal structures
D. sites of energy production in cellular respiration
E ribosomes

C

Movement of vesicles within the cell depends on what cellular structures?
A. centrioles and motor proteins
B. actin filaments and motor proteins
C. actin filaments and microtubules
D. actin filaments and ribosomes
E. microtubules and motor proteins

E

The smallest cell structure that would most likely be visible with a standard (not super-resolution) research-grade light microscope is
A. a mitochondrion.
B. a ribosome.
C. a microfilament.
D. a nuclear pore.
E. a microtubule.

A

Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, consisting of nine doublets of microtubules surrounding a pair of single microtubules?
A. both centrioles and basal bodies
B. both motile cilia and primary (nonmotile) cilia
C. centrioles only
D. both basal bodies and primary (nonmotile) cilia
E. both flagella and motile cilia

E.

Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some forms of cancer. Cancer cells given vinblastine would be unable to
A. migrate by amoeboid movement.
B. form cleavage furrows during cell division.
C. extend pseudopods.
D. maintain the shape of the nucleus.
E. separate chromosomes during cell division.

E

The differences among the three categories of cytoskeletal elements outlined in the table above would suggest that each of the following has specialized roles. Which of the following is a correct match? (All three elements are involved in the maintenance of cell shape.)
A. microtubules and chromosome movement
B. microfilaments and the nuclear lamina
C. microfilaments and ciliary motion
D microtubules and cleavage furrow formation
E. intermediate filaments and cytoplasmic streaming

A

Centrioles, cilia, flagella, and basal bodies have remarkably similar structural elements and arrangements. Which of the following hypotheses is most plausible in light of such structural similarities?
A. Motor proteins such as dynein must have evolved before any of these four kinds of structure.
B. Cilia and flagella coevolved in the same ancestral eukaryotic organism.
C. Cilia and flagella arise from the centrioles.
D. Loss of basal bodies should lead to loss of all cilia, flagella, and centrioles.
E. Natural selection for cell motility repeatedly selected for microtubular arrays in circular patterns in the evolution of each of these structures.

C

Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to
A. move vesicles around the cell.
B. form cleavage furrows.
C. contract muscle fibers.
D. perform amoeboid movement.
E. extend pseudopodia.

A

Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?
A. Chemicals that block the assembly of the cytoskeleton would cause little effect on the cell's response to external signals and stimuli.
B. The dynamic aspect of cytoskeletal function is made possible by the assembly and disassembly of a large variety of proteins into complex aggregates.
C. Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other.
D. Transport vesicles among the membranes of the endomembrane system produce the cytoskeleton.
E. Microfilaments are structurally rigid and resist compression, whereas microtubules resist tension (stretching).

C

Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?
A. laminin
B. secretory vesicles
C. intermediate filaments
D. actin
E. tubulin

E

All of the following serve an important role in determining or maintaining the structure of plant cells. Which of the following are distinct from the others in their composition?
A. intermediate filaments
B. nuclear lamina
C. microfilaments
D. plant cell walls
E. microtubules

D

What do the cell walls of plants and the extracellular matrix of animal cells have in common?
A. They are largely composed of phospholipids and glycoproteins.
B. Their proteins are made by free cytoplasmic ribosomes.
C. They limit the passage of small molecules.
D. They have functional connections with the cytoskeleton inside the cell.
E. They form rigid structures that provide structural support for cells but limit their expansion.

D

The cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plant cells and the extracellular matrix of animal cells are all external to the plasma membrane. Which of the following is a characteristic common to all of these extracellular structures?
A. They are composed of a mixture of lipids and carbohydrates.
B. They must block water and small molecules in order to regulate the exchange of matter and energy with their environment.
C. They must permit information transfer between the cell's cytoplasm and the nucleus.
D. They are constructed of polymers that are synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported out of the cell.
E. They must provide a rigid structure that maintains an appropriate ratio of cell surface area to volume.

D

A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in its
A.nuclear lamina and nuclear matrix.
B. nuclear matrix and extracellular matrix.
C. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus.
D. nuclear pores and secretory vesicles.
E. Golgi apparatus and extracellular matri

E

The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?
A. integrins
B. the nucleus
C. gap junctions
D. DNA and RNA
E. plasmodesmata

A

Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?
A. gap junctions
B. peroxisomes
C. tight junctions
D. extracellular matrix
E. desmosomes

A

Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
A. plasmodesmata.
B. desmosomes.
C. intermediate filaments.
D. tight junctions.
E. gap junctions.

E.

Which of the following makes it necessary for animal cells, although they have no cell walls, to have intercellular junctions?
A. The relative shapelessness of animal cells requires a mechanism for keeping the cells aligned.
B. Cell membranes do not distinguish the types of ions and molecules passing through them.
C. Cell-to-cell communication requires physical attachment of one cell to another.
D. Maintenance of tissue integrity and barriers to fluid leakage requires cells to adhere tightly to one another.
E. Large molecules, such as proteins and RNA molecules, do not readily get through one, much less two, adjacent cell membranes.

D

Signals from the ECM to the cytoskeleton may be transmitted by
A. middle lamella.
B. integrins.
C. proteoglycans.
D. collagen.
E fibronectin.

B

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