FSE2061 - Thanatology Final Review

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Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Psychological Perspectives

Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Cognitive, Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Biological, Psychological, Sociocultural

Psychologist

one who is trained in methods of psychological analysis, therapy, and research

Psychiatrist

A physician who specializes in the study, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders

Psychoanalyst

One who practices psychoanalysis

Psychotherapist

An individual trained or skilled in the management of psychological disorders

Structuralism

A theory founded by Wilhelm Wundt that deals with what the mind Is made of

Functionalism

Mainly founded by William James who emphasized the importance of what the mind does versus what it is made of.

Behaviorism

a psychological perspective whose explanations about learning are based on the relationship between observable behaviors and environmental events rather than on internal processes.

Psychological Perspectives

Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Cognitive, Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Biological, Psychological, Sociocultural

Area of specialization

Clinical, Cognitive, Counseling, Developmental, Educational, Personality, Social Psychology, Abnormal Psychology

Psychologist

one who is trained in methods of psychological analysis, therapy, and research

Psychiatrist

A physician who specializes in the study, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders

Psychoanalyst

One who practices psychoanalysis

Psychotherapist

An individual trained or skilled in the management of psychological disorders

Ego defense mechanisms

Denial, Displacement, Intellectualization, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction, Formation, Regression, Repression, Sublimation, Suppression

Social-cognitive and humanistic theories

Rogers person centered theory, Maslow's humanistic theory of self-actualization, Existential theory

Funeral service psychology

the study of human behavior as related to funeral service

Bereavement

the act or event of separation or loss that results in the experience of grief

Mourning

an adjustment process which involves grief or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the reorganization of the life of an individual following a loss or death of someone beloved

Grief

an emotion or set of emotions due to a loss

Emotions

feelings such as happiness, anger and grief created by brain patterns and bodily changes

Needs of the Bereaved

Confirm the reality, Express their emotions, Modify emotional ties with the deceased, Memorialize the person's life, Recognize and complete unfinished business, Receive emotional support, Be assured feelings are normal, Be accepted for where they are, Establish stability and security, Provide a basis for building new interpersonal relationships

purposes and values of a funeral ritual

Opportunity to receive and express love, Shows respect for the family, friends, and the deceased, Opportunity to express grief, Face to face confrontation with the death, Gain emotional support through sharing, Meet spiritual, psychological, and social needs, Opportunity for farewell, Reflection and recognition of deceased, Establishes stable social support network, Establishes socially accepted climate for mourning

Grief syndrome

a set of symptoms associated with loss (Eric Lindemann)

Symptoms of grief syndrome

Somatic or bodily stress of some type, Preoccupation with the image of the deceased, Guilt relating to the deceased or circumstances of the death, Hostile reaction, The inability to function as one had before the death

Grief Work (def.)

a process occurring with loss, aimed at loosening the attachment to the dead for reinvesting in the living.

"The attachment theory"

John Bowlby

Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

describes attachment behavior as any behavior people develop and maintain that enables them to be close to another individual.

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

Theorist for the "Five Stages of Death and Dying"

Five Stages of Death and Dying (Kubler-Ross)

Denial and isolation, Anger (def.) - blame directed at another person, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance

J. William Worden

Theorist for the "Tasks of Mourning"

Tasks of Mourning

four tasks that the bereaved must go through to successfully manage their grief: To accept the reality of the loss, To experience the pain of grief and to express emotions associated with it, To adjust to the environment in which the deceased is missing, To withdraw emotional energy and reinvest it in another relationship

Grief Counseling

helping people facilitate grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame.

Grief Therapy

specialized techniques which are used to help people with complicated grief reactions.

Manifestations of normal grief

feelings, physical sensations, cognitions, behaviors

Mediators of mourning

Who the person was, Nature of the attachment, Historical antecedents, Personality variables, Social variables, Concurrent stresses, Circumstantial factors influencing grief, Hospice, Living Will

Modes of death

Natural, accidental, suicide, homicide

Abnormal grief responses

Chronic grief, Delayed grief, Exaggerated grief, Masked grief, Disenfranchised Grief

Birth to two years

no comprehension of death

Two to five years

unable to understand the finality of death; death is like sleep or like taking a long journey

Six to nine years

may understand that death is final but may not accept it as something that happens to everyone; often personify death (i.e. boogeyman)

Nine to twelve

have the cognitive understanding to comprehend death as a final event.

Thirteen to eighteen

understand death as both final and inevitable, is irreversible and happens to everyone.

Types of counseling

information, situational and psychotherapy

Styles of counseling

directive and non-directive counseling

Non-Directive counseling

the style of counseling that that is most effective

Goals of grief counseling

To increase the reality of the loss (actualize),To help the counselee deal with both expressed and latent affect, To help the counselee overcome various impediments to readjust after loss, To help the counselee find a way to remember the deceased while feeling comfortable reinvesting in life

Counseling principles and procedures

Help the survivor actualize the loss, Help the survivor to identify and express feelings, Assist living without the deceased, Help find meaning in the loss, Facilitate emotional relocation of the deceased, Help find meaning in the loss, Facilitate emotional relocation of the deceased

Essential skills

Attending or Active listening, Paraphrasing, Clarifying, Perception checking, Leading, Questioning, Reflecting feelings, Informing, Summarizing

Denial

arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn't exist

Rationalization

supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason

Displacement

Taking out impulses on a less threatening target

Projection

Placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else

Regression

returning to a previous stage of development

Sublimation

acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way

Guilt

blame directed towards one's self based on real or unreal conditions

Anger

blame directed toward another person

Crisis Qualities and Characteristics

1. A period of heightened psychological accessibility which will last for no longer than four to six weeks
2. Usually stimulated by an outside precipitator or emotionally hazardous situation
3. Crises are normal reactions to emotionally hazardous situations, not signs of mental illness
4. The individual's appraisal (perception) of the emotionally hazardous situation greatly determines both the occurrence and seriousness of the crisis
5. The more seriously threatening an individual's appraisal of an event, the greater the likelihood for primitive coping behaviors
6. Persons in crisis tend to pull away from contact with significant others

Crisis

A highly emotional temporary state in which an individual's feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion and pain impair his or her ability to act.

Potential Crisis

Suicide
Homicide
A.I.D.S.
S.I.D.S.
Euthanasia

Disaster

There are unique dimensions of grief associated with _____.

Steps in communication

Establishing contact
Notification
Providing support
Catharsis
Establishing a network
Terminating the initial communication

Communicating with the mass media

Calm under pressure
Respected by officials
Credible to reporters
Low key
Accessible

Statistics

Mortality
Time factors
Seasonal influences
Racial considerations

Grieving challenges

Cause
Investigation and interrogation
Severity of loss
Relational problems

trust (and) empathy

A relationship of _____ and _______ is no less important in crisis intervention than in any other form of counseling

Funeral directors role (in crisis)

Attending behavior
Listening
Important to be non-judgmental in the early stages of developing a relationship

Responding

_______is one of the basic dimensions of all human interchange;

Focusing

Filtering out irrelevant data.

ABC Method

Achieving contact with the person in crisis
Boiling down the problems to it's essentials
Coping with the problem

Threat

A statement or action designed or perceived to create anxiety in an individual's life.

Anxiety

A state of tension, typically characterized by rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and other similar ramifications of arousal of the autonomic nervous system.

(Ways of ) coping with the problem

Establishment of goals
Inventory of resources
Formulation of alternatives
Review and refinement
Action

Aftercare

Phone contact; not as good as personal contact
Personal contact: Best of all
Letters/Cards: 30 days, 90 days, 6 months and 1 yr
Literature (Pamphlets, Books, Audio-Visual)
Community Educational Programs: offer at home no charge
Professional aftercare Programs: get local listings
Referrals to Support Groups or Professional Therapists

Characteristics of Stress and Burnout

Exhaustion and loss of energy
Irritability and impatience
Cynicism and detachment
Physical complaints and depression
Disorientation and confusion
Omnipotence and feeling indispensable
Minimization and denial of feelings

Guidelines for the caregiver

Recognize that you are working in an area of care where the risk for burnout is high
Create periods of rest and renewal
Be compassionate with yourself about not being perfect
Practice setting limits and alleviate stresses you can do something about
Learn effective time-management skills
Work to cultivate a personal support system
Express the persona in both your work and play
Work to understand your motivation to work in Funeral Service
Develop healthy eating, sleeping, and exercise patterns
Strive to identify the unique ways in which your body informs you that you are stressed

Denial

arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn't exist

displacement

taking out impulses on a less threatening target

Intellectualization

avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects

projection

placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else

rationalization

supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason

reaction formation

taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety

regression

returning to a previous stage of development

repression

pulling into the unconscious

sublimation

acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way

suppression

pushing into the unconscious

Example of Denial

denying that your physician's diagnosis of cancer is correct and seeking a second opinion

Example of displacement

slamming a door instead of hitting as person, yelling at your spouse after an argument with your boss

Example of Intellectualization

focusing on the details of a funeral as opposed to the sadness and grief

Example of projection

when losing an argument, you state "You're just Stupid;" homophobia

rationalization

stating that you were fired because you didn't kiss up the the boss, when the real reason was your poor performance

Example of reaction formation

having a bias against a particular race or culture and then embracing that race or culture to the extreme

Example of regression

sitting in a corner and crying after hearing bad news; throwing a temper tantrum when you don't get your way

Example of repression

forgetting sexual abuse from your childhood due to the trauma and anxiety

Example of sublimation

sublimating your aggressive impulses toward a career as a boxer; becoming a surgeon because of your desire to cut; lifting weights to release 'pent up' energy

Example of suppression

trying to forget something that causes you anxiety

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