(Chamot & O`Malley, 1994) Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. Development of academic language skills & explicit instruction for content and language. Scaffolded instruction. Explicit instruction of learning strategies and development of critical thinking to acquire language proficiency. Based on the cognitive approach. It teaches students to use their prior knowledge as a means to learning.
An approach to second language teaching characterized by the explicit teaching of grammar rules and the use of translation exercises.
An interactive approach that emphasizes active student involvement. It involves talking about text w/ students to provide opportunities for using language to learn language and concepts. Language is expressed naturally and the content is meaningful and relevant to students.
Learning that is stimulated by the senses involving movement, smell,touch, visualization and interaction with people and objects in real space.
An approach where learners are initially exposed to meaningful language; they are not corrected or forced to speak until they feel ready to; there is no explicit focus on grammar.
Sheltered English Immersion is defined as an English language acquisition process for young children in which nearly all classroom instruction is in English but with curriculum and presentation designed for children who are learning the language. Books and instructional materials are in English and all reading, writing, and subject matter are taught in English. Th terms "sheltered English immersion" and structured English immersion are often used interchangeably
A means for making content comprehensible for English learners while they are developing English proficiency. Sheltered classrooms integrate language and content while infusing sociocultural awareness.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. A scientifically validated model of sheltered instruction designed to make grade-level academic content understandable to ELLs.
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
An explanation for knowledge and learning that is based on the assumption that all learning is first social then individual.
Two languages are acquired early in a person's development.
Partially or completly losing the first language as a second is acquired.
Total Physical Response (James Asher) Since commands can be made comprehensible at the early stages of language acquisition, this strategy lowered the affective filter and got the learners phisically and actively involved.
Two Way Bilingual Programs
Dual Language Instruction: Language majority and language minority children are taught via the minority language.
Zone of Proximal Development
ZPD The metaphorical "place"in which a learner is capable of a higher level of performance because there is support from interaction with an interlocutor. (Vygotsky)
Rossel and Baker
students of different L1s together; teachers use English and aida to focus on content rather than language
early exit bilingual; some initial instruction in L1, primarily for reading but also for clarification, instructions in L1 are phased out rapidly
Transitional bilingual: initially instruction is 90% L1 then shifts towards English
Late exit bilingual: students continue to have 40% of instruction in L1 even after classified fluent in English
Cognitive, Academic Learning Model -Like SIOP because both target the big content, but CALLA is less detailed, not as specific as SIOP model
the connections among language, nationality, and personal identity; language will live as long as it is socially used, involved with language revival
In the early stages of language learning, which style do children prefer if they are using short, one-word utterances?
rule by rule
When children make grammatical errors in the process of language acquisition, it means that they are figuring out the language structure ______.
Analytic language learners
Breaking speech into its smallest components is the focus of what type of learners?
Developmental progress of LEP students is reviewed annually. FEP (Fluent English Proficiency) redesignation will occur based on the following criteria: 1. Teacher recommendation. 2. SOLM (Student Oral Language Observation Matrix). 3.Oral English Fluency (LAS-O and other assessment tests) 4. Reading/Writing (LAS R/W and other assessment tests) 5. Student Writing sample 6. CTBS score of 36 percentile or greater in reading, language and math)
Silent Way (Gattegno)
Communicative approach that makes learner responsible for own learning and makes extensive use of Cuisinare rods, color-coding and other manipulatives.
SDAIE - Specially Designated Academic Instruction in English
"Sheltered" To help students of INTERMEDIATE OR HIGHER proficiency access grade-level SUBJECT matter. Academic subject area instruction that takes into account the special needs of LEP and other students by fostering: 1. Active student participation 2. Social Interaction 3. Integrated oral and written language 4. Authentic books and tasks 5. Adequate coverage of background knowledge required to nmaster a topic (vocabulary, key concepts, etc.)
Stages of Language Development (PEPSI)
Level I: Pre-Production Stage (Silent Period): Minimal Comprehension, no verbal production. Level II: Early Production Stage.Limited Comprehension; One/two-word response.Level III : Speech Emergence Stage. Increased Comprehension; Simple sentences;Some errors in speech. Level IV:Intermediate fluency Stage. Very good comprehension;More complex sentences;Complex errors in speech.
Sink or swim approach to ELD instruction. L2 students are placed in the same classes as L1 students and required to learn as much as they can.
Submersion + ESL
English learners are given a separate ESL class for a prescribed period of time, usually one hour per day.The rest of the day is spent in classes with L1 learners.
Suggestopedia. It is used in different fields, but mostly foreign language learning. Claims can learn a language approximately three to five times faster. Some of the key elements of Suggestopedia include a rich sensory learning environment (pictures, colour, music, etc.), a positive expectation of success and the use of dramatised texts, music, active participation in songs and games, etc.
Total Physical Response (James Asher)
Communicative approach where students respond with actions, not words first.Instruction is concrete and can be introductory to reading/writing experiences.
Bilingual prgram whose goal is to help English learners ultimately adjust to an all English educational program. May be early-exit (2nd grade) or late-exit (6th grade).
Bilingual program where L2 learners receive L1 instruction and L1 students receive L2 instruction. To be effective program must: 1. Allow for development of CALP.2.Optimal input in both languages. 3. Focus on academic subjects. 4.Integrate the curriculum. 5. Allow for monolingual instruction for sustained periods.6. Have home school collaborations. 7. Empower students as active learners. 8. Make sufficient use of minority language.
natural genuine learning situations where they use both conscious understanding of a language and subconscious (take cues from visual and commands)
communicative language approach
focus on students communicating naturally in second language; conversation instead of grammar; teaching strategies: role play, games, interviews, negotiation
sheltered strategies and reading intervention approaches
1) students should have access to early literacy programs in L1 2) early assessments in L1 for learning disabilities and literacy level 3) provide grade-level content in English by giving simple directions 4) comprehensible input 5) make connections and use clear baackground 6) teach reading strategies and focus on vocabulary 7) word webs and KWL charts
Gersten SEI Theory
Early Exit Bilingual: some initial instruction in L1, primarily for reading but also for clarification, instructions in L1 are phased out rapidly
Ramirez SEI Theory
David Ramirez and his colleagues conducted a voluminous study of ELL instructional programs and found that SEI programs shared two basic components: (1) teachers maximize instruction in English and (2) teachers use and teach English at a level appropriate to the abilities of the
ELLs in the class (Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey, 1991).
Lambert SEI Theory
Transitional Bilingual: initially instruction is 90% L1 then shifts towards English
Rossel and Baker SEI Theory
SEI: students of diff. L1s together; teachers use English and aids to focus on content rather than language
Bernstein Sociolinguistic Theory
language is part of class and people use certain codes when speaking
Hymes Sociolinguistic Theory
there is a connection between society, culture and language
Labov Sociolinguistic Theory
created the term of ebonics, African American English has its own rules and should be respected
cognitive processes needed to internalize language rules and vocabulary in L2
memorization; categorization and generalization (categorize and generalize vocabulary); metacognition
Benefits of L1 limited use
Student motivation, breaking through tough communication between teacher and student, student comfort and self-esteem,
Very effective for ELLs and for native at-risk students.
SEI Effective Components
1. Big % of day dedicated to explicit teaching of English, and students are grouped for this by English proficiency.
2. English is the main content of instruction. Academic content plays a supporting, but subordinate, role.
3.English is language of instruction; students and teachers are expected to speak, read, and write in English.
4. English as foreign language. Calls for active, direct, and explicit instructional methods. Students have abundant
opportunities to learn and produce new and more complex English language structures.
5. Discrete English grammar skills. Overtly taught English pronunciation and listening skills; word building; word-order rules; a wide range of vocabulary (synonyms, antonyms, survival vocabulary, academic word groups); and formulaic expressions not easily explained by grammar analysis ("There you go again"; "What's up with that?"). The overt teaching of verb tenses is typically the anchor of many of these programs, accounting for up to one-fourth of the total instructional time.
6. Rigorous exit time lines. Usually one year. Should have the basics to succeed in class by then.
7. Federal mandates 2 year monitor of SEI grads. Should continue learning English in sheltered or mainstream classes.
SEI typical day in CA
● Pronunciation and listening skills, 20 minutes.
● Vocabulary, 30 minutes.
● Verb tense instruction, 20 minutes.
● Sentence structure, 20 minutes.
● Integrated grammar skills application, 20 minutes.
● English reading and writing, 60 minutes.
● Math (specially designed academic instruction in English), 40 minutes.
● Science, social science, P.E., 40 minutes.
Castañeda v. Pickard
In 1981, in the most significant decision regarding the education of language-minority students since Lau v. Nichols, the 5th Circuit Court established a three-pronged test for evaluating programs serving English language learners. Schools must:
1. Base their program on educational theory recognized as sound or considered to be a legitimate experimental strategy
2. Implement with resources and personnel necessary to put the theory into practice
3. evaluate programs & adjust as needed to ensure adequate progress
Lau vs. Nichols
1974 Chinese students vs CA. The Supreme
Court found that California Education Code required English as language of instruction, state policy to ensure the mastery of English by all students in the schools, must meet English standards to graduate. In the opinion of the Supreme Court, these state standards didn't give equal treatment simply because all students were provided with equal facilities, books, teachers, and curriculum. Result: students with language deficiencies to be given assistance to rectify the deficiency.
Suggestopedia. Used mostly foreign language learning. Claims can learn a language approximately three to five times faster. Communicative approach that uses Baroque music and play. Physical surroundings and atmosphere vital so students feel comfortable and confident. Playful, uses art and music, specially trained teachers. 4 part lessons:
Introduction: teaches material in "a playful manner"
Concert session (active and passive): Active - teacher reads with intoning as w/ background music. Students may read the text together with the teacher. Passive - done more calmly.
Elaboration: Students sing classical songs and play games to review and consolidate. teacher acts like a consultant.
Production: The students spontaneously speak and interact in the target language without interruption or correction.