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MCAT

organisms

An individual living thing

prokaryotes

unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles; circular DNA

Archaea

domain of prokaryotic organisms that are biochemically and genetically distinct from bacteria

Bacteria

domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans

Halobacterium

halophilic archaea, lives where there's high salt concentrations

pigments

light absorbing molecules

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

species

a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring

osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Deinococcus radiodurans

Super bacterium that survives extreme conditions & also survives 3000x more radiation than humans can.

Picrophilus oshimae

Extremophile: Grow in pH of 0.3, acidic enough to dissolve metal

unicellular

having or consisting of a single cell

Thiomargarita namibiensis

Ocean dwelling bacterium. Largest bacterium discovered. Can be seen with naked eye.

cellulose

A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.

chitin

complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods

peptidoglycan

A protein-carbohydrate compound that makes the cell walls of bacteria rigid

polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

monomers

small building block molecules

molecules

Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

atoms

building blocks of matter

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

lipopolysaccharides

large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide joined by a covalent bond. Found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria

fever

elevated body temperature

shock

A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called

hypoperfusion

...

Staphylococcus aureus

a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or produces food poisoning

slime
layer

gelatinous sheath surrounding the cell walls of certain bacteria

Thylakoid

saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts

pilus

short, thick outgrowth of a bacterium that allows it to attach to another bacterium

exaptation

a structure that evolves and functions in one environmental context but that can perform additional functions in a new environment

erythromycin

antibiotic

tetracycline

an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections

binary fission

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells

cell-surface proteins

proteins embedded in the cell membrane

bacteriophages

A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.

DNA recombination

Combing segments of DNA from at least two diffrent organisms.

conjugation,

A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer

F factor

A plasmid that codes for the pilus and other genes needed for DNA
copy and transfer in conjugation; short for "fertility factor."

Shigella

rod-shaped gram-negative enterobacteria, -food poison, shigellosis

phototrophs

an organism that uses light energy to generate ATP and produce organic compounds from inorganic substances.

chemotrophs

obtain energy from chemicals

autotrophs

..., organisms that get their carbon directly from the inorganic molecule carbon dioxide

heterotrophs

..., Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food

photosynthetic cells

Cells near the surface of the green parts of stems and leaves that contain large numbers of chloroplasts.

Photoheterotroph:

an organism that uses Light energy to generate ATP and obtains organic compounds from other organisms.

Chemoautotroph:

an organism that uses energy from chemical reactions to generate ATP and produce organic compounds from inorganic substances.

heterocysts

specialized cells that produce nitrogen-fixing enzymes

phylogeny

the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms

molecular systematics

the discipline that uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships

taxonomy

The scientific study of how living things are classified

metagenomics

the practice of analyzing DNA from environmental samples without isolating intact organisms

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