PREGNANCY HORMONES II

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HCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
(HCG)

Peptide hormone secreted by placenta

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
(HCG)

Stimulates estrogen and progesterone synthesis in corpus luteum of early pregnancy

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
(HCG)

(Maintaining The Pregnancy) until placenta can take over- a few months

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
(HCG)

Prevents involution of corpus luteum to maintain production of progesterone until placenta is formed

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

Secreted by chorion to maintain corpus luteum until about 4th month, when placenta produces enough progesterone and estrogen

HPL

Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) or (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)

Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) or (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)

Peptide hormone secreted by placenta

Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) or (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)

Stimulates metabolism of fat to provide maternal energy

Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) or (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)

Has growth hormone-like and prolactin-like actions during pregnancy

Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) or (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)

Antagonistic to insulin, promotes sodium retention

Placenta

Cells- chorion. Release the hormones as followed: 1. human chorionic gonadotropic hormone,
Produces
estrogen, progesterone, and relaxin.

Placenta

Formed from both fetal & maternal tissues

Placenta

The site of nutrients / waste exchange between embryo & mother

Placenta

Secretes progesterone from the 10th-12th week until term

Placenta

Functions as an endocrine organ (produces hormones)

Placenta

Produces HCG and progesterone and estrogen (hormones

Placenta Hormones

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG),
Human placental lactogen (HPL) or human chorionic somatomammotropin,
Estriol
Progesterone

(FSH)

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Initiates maturation of ovum, suppressed during pregnancy

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates the development of primary follicles (oocytes).

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Increases the number of follicular cells which in turn produce oestrogens

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Produces follicular fluids

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Develops the oocyte in the follicle

Prolactin

Inhibited by progesterone until maternal levels drop after delivery

Prolactin

Promotes milk synthesis and secretion

Prolactin

Secreted by anterior pituitary gland

Prolactin

Primary hormone of milk production, insulin antagonist

Prolactin

Stimulates milk production in postpartum mammala

Oxytocin

The love hormone

Oxytocin

Stimulates uterine contractions to initiate labor, stimulates milk-ejection reflex after birth, inhibited during pregnancy

Oxytocin

Stimulation of uterine contractions by positive feedback cycle

Oxytocin

Promotes milk ejection reflex and and contraction of myoepithelial cells

Oxytocin

Secreted by posterior pituitary gland

What is the primary function of Cortisol

Increase blood glucose

Cortisol

Increased during pregnancy, active in metabolism of glucose, protein, and fats

Estriol

Steroid hormone secreted by placenta

Luteinizing Hormone

Stimulates ovulation of mature ovum in nonpregnant state, suppressed in pregnancy

Aldosterone

Increased during pregnancy to conserve sodium and maintain fluid balance

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone

Increased during pregnancy, produces hyperpigmentation

Synergistic Hormones

Work together to perform the same action.
Example-
GLUCAGON, EPINEPHRINE, and CORTISOL- all raise blood glucose levels

Antagonistic Hormones

Humerol Control, two hormones that have opposite actions.
Example- INSULIN. GLUCAGON- decrease and increase blood glucose levels.
PTH and CALCITONIN- decrease and increase blood calcium levels

Corpus Luteum

Yellow endocrine tissue that forms in a ruptured Graafian follicle following the release of an ovum

Corpus Luteum Hormones

Estradiol, Progesterone

Ovaries

Located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone

Ovulation

The expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)

Fallopian Tubes

Tubes which carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus and which provides the place where fertilization occurs

Ovarian Follicles

Contain developing eggs and secrets ESTROGEN to prepare the uterine lining for fertilized egg implantment

Oocyte

A female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions

Fimbriae

Finger or fringe like projections

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