Nutrition - Ch 15, 16 & 17

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Test 3

Know the 2 most common deficiencies in young children

Fe & Zn.
Remember how important they are for blood and growth and yet many children are
deficient in them.

food intolerances

are the adverse reactions that do not involve the immune system, they are usually
caused by chemicals or irritants in the food.

food allergies

Whole proteins are engulfed by intestinal cells & then move into the blood stream & stimulate the immune system.
-Immediate happens in minutes or hours & is caused by mast cells releasing histamine
-Delayed happens in 1-3 days & is caused by macrophages & T cells migrating into
tissues
**The most common foods that cause allergies are nuts, milk, eggs, wheat, fish

tension fatigue syndrome

is hyperactivity due to a combination of lack of sleep, over stimulation & anxiety. Children up to age 12 should get 10 hours of sleep a day. Many children watch TV with their parents until late at night & then have to be up at 6am to get to school! Overstimulation occurs with most of the media exposure kids receive. Anxiety comes through media beyond their age to understand, fighting/money problems/etc in the home, bullies at school, etc

Discuss nutritional deficiencies & behavior

Nutritional deficiencies in children cause irritability, aggressiveness, sadness, depression, moodiness, decreased attention & ability to learn, and hyperactivity.

Describe brain glucose requirements

The brain needs 120g/day. Because children cannot store much glycogen, children under 10 need to eat every 4-6 hours while awake to support brain activity. Many times cranky uncooperative children are exhibiting those characteristics because it
has been too long since they ate and the mood centers of the brain can't function properly.

Discuss puberty & adolescence

It is the period of growth that leads to sexual maturity & adult body composition. The calorie requirement for teenagers is usually 4000 per day. Females need extra
Iron while both sexes need extra Calcium.

marijuana use

It is absorbed by the lungs & then stored in the lungs, liver, brain & gonads. It is usually excreted from the body for about a week. It increases munching and decreases the immune system & memory.

cocaine use

Cravings for the drug replace hunger. It also causes irritability, insomnia, arrythmias (irregular heart beats) and heart attacks.

arrhythmia's

abnormal heart rhythms and can be mild to life threatening

tobacco use

It reduces hunger feelings. It interferes with vitamins A, C & folate. And it causes cancer.

Define physiological age

A person's estimated age based on body health.

List 6 factors that affect physiological age

1. Little or no alcohol
2. regular meals
3. weight control
4. adequate sleep
5. no smoking
6. regular physical acitivity

cataracts

Cloudy lenses, some can be caused by nutritional imbalances

arthritis

Inflammation of the joints, good nutrition reduces its risk & effects.
**People often take cartilage molecules to supposedly help with joint problems but research has shown that the molecules are not absorbed intact. They are broken down like every other food and then must be reassembled in the joint and that just doesn't happen. So any improvement is thought to be due to the placebo/emotional effect

Elderly.

People over 75 require a different RDA which has not yet been completely established. They are usually slightly dehydrated all the time due to a decreased thirst mechanism. Their metabolic rate is slower so their calorie requirement is less. their zinc & iron absorptions are less efficient but their vitamin A absorption is more efficient.

Caffeine

It is absorbed & circulates to all tissues approximately 30 minutes after ingestion. It is broken down by the liver & excreted by the kidney. It is a mild stimulant.It increases heat production, blood pressure, urine output & stomach acid. Also, it interferes with adenosine which is a molecule that causes heart pain when the heart is in trouble so people who consume a lot of caffeine may not feel their heart attack! Withdrawal symptoms are headaches, drowsiness, fatigue. It can be decaffeinated 3 ways: methylene chloride which can cause cancer, ethyl acetate which is a safe compound found in fruit, and bubbling water & CO2 over or through the product which is also safe.

illness

any altered state of health

stress

any threat or demand on the body (physical or psychological)

List some secondary factors of illness that affect nutrition.

Pain, immobility, psychological stress, medical procedures, medicines. All of these can cause a sick person not to want to eat, thereby reducing their nutrition for fighting their illness.

Discuss decubitus ulcers

They are the breakdown of skin & underlying tissue due to constant pressure & lack of oxygen. Thin or malnourished people are at increased risk.

Describe some nonspecific body defenses

1. Skin:The skin contains the tough protein keratin to repel microbes. It also contains acid in some of its secretions which don't bother us but can kill microbes.
2. Mucus: The mucus traps microbes and cilia move them to another location to be dealt with.
3. Tears & saliva: contain enzymes that can kill microbes and antibodies.
4. Normal flora: Normal bacteria compete with or destroy harmful microbes.

T cell

They are lymphocytes. Helper T cells turn the immune system on, suppressor turn it off, cytotoxic T cells attack cancer, transplanted or infected cells.

B cells

They are lymphoctyes that produce antibodies.

Describe the primary immune response

1st.A macrophage engulfs a microbe then displays pieces of the microbe on its surface.
2nd. It uses those pieces to turn on a T cell.
3rd. The T cell divides forming an active T cell & a memory cell. The memory cell stays in
the body a long time.
4th. The active T cell turns on a B cell.
5th. he B cell divides forming a plasma cell & a memory cell. The memory cell stays in the body a long time.
6th. The plasma cell secretes antibodies.
7th. Antibodies bind to microbes
8th. many cells and complement recognize and destroy microbe.

Describe the effects of malnutrition on body defense

1. The skin & mucus membranes thin.
2. GI tract cells shrink.
3. Lymphatic organs shrink.
4. T cells are reduced.
5. Phagocytes take longer to act.

Discuss translocation

The movement of bacteria from the intestine to the blood or body tissues.

methotrexate

an anticancer drug that competes with folate

pyrimethamine

an anti -malaria drug that competes with folate

Discuss nutritional factors concerning aspirin

1. It competes with folate.
2. It circulates in the body longer in the pesence of large amounts of vitamin C.

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