# Praxis II:0011/5011

### 67 terms by kathryn_andersen

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### informal assessment

observations & checklist

### formal assessment

projects. papers, and portfolios rubrics essays tests

### Performance-based assessments

ex: a lab experiment

### authentic assessments

projects, anecdotal, portfolios

### criterion-referenced tests

students can score 100 because they should understand the concept being tested

### norm-reference test

A form of assessment in which the test takers' scores can be compared to the scores of a specified group of people, typically a group of the test takers' peers, such as students in the same grade.

### percentile scores

the percentage of the population whose scores fall at or below the student's score.

### raw scores

how many questions the student answered correctly -used to find the percentage score

### normed scores

test scores that are compared to a specified group to determine how a student scored in comparision to the group

### reliability

the ability of the instrument to give consistent results with repeated measurments. ex: a good bathroom scale gives the same # each time

### Validity

does the test measure what it claims to measure

### deductive reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)

### inductive reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").

### teaching deductively

the teacher gives the students the rule first and then practices it

### teaching inductively

the students see many applications of the rule and then determine the rule themselves

### set

a collection of things real or imagined related or unrelated

### array

area method of representing a multiplication problem

### multiples

numbers that a given number divides evenly into

### reciprocals

two numbers whose product is 1
ex 8 X 1/8 = 1

### associative property for addition and multiplication

3+ (7+5) is the same as (3+7)+5 grouping does not make a difference

### distributive property of addition and multiplication

6 X 47 is the same as (6X40) + (6X7)

### natural numbers

The set of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... Also called counting numbers.

### factors

all whole numbers that divide evenly into a given number.

### prime numbers

Numbers with exactly two factors, 1 and itself. Examples would be 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and 17

### composite numbers

Numbers with more than two factors. Examples would be 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, etc.

### rational numbers

any number that can be expressed as a fraction

### integers

whole numbers and their opposites

part of a whole

### irrational numbers

numbers that cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b =0, when written as a decimal it does not repeat or terminate

### rational numbers

numbers that can be written as fractions, including terminating and repeating decimals, and integers

### real numbers

all the numbers that can be represented by points on the number line

out of 100

### ratio notation

an alternative method for showing fractions 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5 or 2:5

### proportion

an equation stating that two ratios are equal ex 2/5 = N/10

### congruent

if the measures of two angles are the same the angles are congruent

### area

the number of square units needed to cover a flat surface

### polygon

a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides

### regular polygon

a closed plane figure with all sides and all angles equal

### congruent polygons

the same size and shape

### similar polygons

the same shape but different sizes; corresponding angles, have the same measure and the lengths of corresponding sides are porportional

### tessellation

a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely cover a plane with no gaps or overlaps

### scaling

a linear transformation that enlarges or reduces an object

### measures of centeral tendency

mean- the average of the numbers
median- the middle number when the vaules are in order
mode-the value occurring most often
range- the largest number- the smallest number

### probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
P= number of ways the event can occur/ total number of possible events

### problem solving strategies

estimation (2 level of blooms taxonomy- understanding)
guess and check
draw a picture
make a table or a chart
act it out
look ofr patterns
simplify the numbers
work backwards

### volume

the amount of space an object occupies; 3-D

### expository

method of instruction based on teacher-dominated activities, examples could include lecture, reading a story, showing video, etc.

### discovery

takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments

### guided inquiry

is carefully planned, closely supervised,
targeted investigation method of instruction

### aptitiude test

predicts a student's ability

### achievment test

determines a student's mastery of specific topics/concepts

### enrichment

tiered lessons, learning centers, or other options which allow capable students to participate in extended learning opportunities

when as assignment or skill is broken down into smaller sequential steps and each of those steps are taught one at a time

### chunking

the strategy of breaking down information into bite-sized pieces so the brain can more easily digest new information

### scope and sequence

design element of curriculum which includes decisions and planning about the information to be taught as well as an outline of the which sequence skills an concepts are taught

### anticipatory set

opening activity of a lesson plan; prepares students for the upcoming lesson

### direct instruction

general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning

### mastery learning

an instructional philosophy based on the idea of giving students more than one chance to demonstrate profeciency of content and skills.

### extrinsic motivator

those that come from outside the individual; often tangible items e.g. money, prizes, stickers

### intrinsic motivatior

those that come from within the individual; satisfaction, pride, feeling of accomplishment

### equity

expectations and support for ALL students

### constructivism

individuals create their own knowledge based on previous knowledge and controlled investigation

### procedural knowledge

understanding of rules, routines, and tasks of mathematics

### scaffolding

specialized instructional supports put in place in order to best facilitate learning when students are first introduced to a new subject.

### ways students can respond to mathematical questions

concrete, picture, symbols, and/or oral

### anecdotal notes

informal observational data recorded by a teacher as an assessment of how a student is performing on a learning concept, socially, etc.

Example:

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