World History First Semester

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Wootton

Geography of Ancient Greece

rugged, easy access to sea, can only farm grapes/olives, raise goats/sheep

Status of women in ancient Greece

low (except in Sparta)

Mycenaean Civilization

1600-1200 BC, powerful fortress cities, warlike and aggressive

responces to overpopulation in Archaic Era

infant exposure, prostitution, homosexuality, colonization

hetaira

prostitute, long-term paid companion

metropolis

a Greek colony's "mother city"

lyric poetry

designed to be sung, rhymed/had a meter, about personal relationships

epic poetry

long book-length poem, about mighty deeds/a grand adventure

Sappho

lyric poet, female, from Lesbos

kouros

(sculpture) depiction of nude male athlete, motionless

kore

(sculture) fully clothed women

Solon

eponymous archon, established timocracy, ends debt slavery

tyrants

"illegal ruler," seized power by force, NOT NEGATIVE

phalanx

Greek battle formation, rectangle made of lines of soldiers

Pythagoras

geometry, the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers

Peisistratus

Seized power from Solon and exiled nobles who disagreed with him. He also distributed those nobles' land to poor farmers in need.

Cleisthenes

introduced democracy

Pericles

perfected democracy

Sophocles

Greek writer of tragedies, author of Oedipus Rex

Euripides

writer, used regular people instead of Gods, and tried to answer real life questions in playwrite

Aristophenes

playwright (comedy)

Herodotus

Greek historian, "father of history"

Thucydides

ancient Greek historian, wrote history of the Peloponnesian War

Thales of Miletus

believed everything was water (lawl), universe is consistent and we can figure out these consistent universal laws

Socrates

taught students to question everything, put to death for atheism/corrupting youth of Athens

Plato

student of Socrates, everything perfect exists on some ideal plane somewhere, we can get to ideal plane by rational thought

Aristotle

student of Plato, doesn't believe in ideal plane, all human knowledge can be systematized

Euclid

father of geometry

Oligarchy

"rule by the few," some wealthy nobles rule

Timocracy

"rule by wealth," Solon, 4 economic classes

Pentakosiomednimoi

highest class in timocracy, "500 bushels of wheat a year," can run for office

democracy

Rule by the people

Homer

ancient Greek epic poet, wrote Iliad and Odyssey

Agora

a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place

Sparta

Powerful Greek city-state that was a long time rival of Athens

The Persian Wars

A series of wars where the Greek city-states united against Persia, and managed to maintain control of the Aegean Sea and push the Persian Empire back

Battle of Marathon

a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians

Parthenon

temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena

Greek Classical Era

following Persian wars, an explosion of greek pride

Philip II of Macedon

loves Greek culture, King of Macedon and restored order before he won control of several Athens colonies in northern Greece

Hellenistic

a word meaning to "imitate Greeks," Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.

Alexander the Great

successor of Philip of Macedon, 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy, spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement

Stoicism

Taught by Zeno, happiness can only be found when people gained inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God

Epicureanism

Happiness was goal of life, can only be happy when centered on friendship

res novae

"new stuff," Rome hated it

Gravitas

great or very dignified seriousness, valued trait

Plebeian

commoners in Rome

Patrician

a member of Roman aristocracy

Conflict of the Orders

plebeians threaten to leave for lack of power, so the patricians give them the written law, they can marry into patrican families, and their own assembly in Concilium Plebis

Consuls

Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies

cursus honorum

the path of honor, to move up a level in the political sense

Senate

the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.

Comitia Tributa

made up of 34 tribes, elect lower magistrates

Comitia Centuriata

passed laws, issued war declarations, ratified treaties and elected magistrates, consisted of 193 members

Concilium Plebis

Council of the Common People, council for plebs, full legislative authority, make laws that supercede laws made by other councils

Tribune of the Plebs

responsible for rights of the lower class, sacro sanct, could veto senate

Virgil

Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied

Horace

wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles (letters)

Livy

Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)

Gracchii

brothers, tried to reform gov't, failed, both assassinated by patricians

Pyrrhic Victory

a victory achieved at great cost.

Twelve Tables

The laws of the partricians were written down on twelve stone tablets.

Punic Wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.

Triumvirate

In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government, never really worked

Julius Caesar

Made dictator for life after conquering Gaul, assassinated by the Senate because they were afraid of his power

Gaul

an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands

Augustus

Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate.

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.

caesaropapism

the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters

the barracks emperors

25 General-Emperors in 49 years

Diocletian

This emperor divided up the empire into east/west and made two rulers for each section with direct sub-rulers for each

Constantine

Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians

Edict of Milan

Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire

Romulus Augustulus

the last emperor in the western Roman Empire, overthrown in 476 (the fall of Rome)

Battle of Adrianople

a Germanic group (Visigoths) defeated the roman legions

Byzantine Empire

Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, capital in Constantinople

Visigoths

Germanic tribe that was forced into the Roman Empire by the Huns

Ostrogoths

East Goths, driven westward by the Huns

Vandals

One of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman empire.

Lombards

German tribe that moved across the Alps into northern Italy

Franks

group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis

Clovis

Unified Gaul, founded Frankish monarchy, first Germanic King to accept Catholicism

Charles Martel

not really king: "mayor of the Palace," defeats Moors at Battle of Tours

Pepin the Short

solidifies French alliance with Pope, defeats Lombards and Byzantines

Donation of Pepin

Pepin gives large land grant to Pope

Charlesmagne

vastly expands Frankish kingdom, greatest of French kings, crowned Emperor of Romans in 800

Magyars

Originate in Dacia, claim to descend from Huns, beaten off by Charlesmagne

Feudalism

system in which vassals provide military service for lords in exchange for land, works when no $ in circulation

manorialism

Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.

Lord

landowner

Vassal

gets land from Lord for military service

Fief

land grant

Steward

in charge of manor while Lord is away

Serf

peasant bound to land, not Lord

Magna Carta

Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons, established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility in 1215

The Crusades

A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land

William I

duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England at Battle of Hastings in 1066

Domesday Book

the first census and a record of property of english people for the purpose of taxation.

Henry II

first Plantagenet King of England, marries Eleanor of Aquitane

Common Law

first national law system, no more Feudalism

Edward I

Conquers Wales, establishes Parliament

Parliament

Originally a tax collecting body, evolved into a law making body

Guilds

Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests

Apprentice

works for an expert to learn a trade

Journeyman

skilled worker employed by a master

Master

a skilled artisan who owned a business and employed others

Bourgeoisie

the middle class

Franciscans

founded by St. Francis, order stressed vows of poverty and gentleness and service to all creatures

Dominicans

Founded by Dominic De Guzman, "defended" the church against heresey.

Thomas Aquinas

Theologian, joins Christian Doctrine with Greek Philosophy, founder of scholasticism

Scholasticism

a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason

The Hundred Years War

Struggle between England and France for control of Flanders, disguised as struggle for French Monarchy

Bubonic Plague/Black Death

very fatal, wipes out 1/3 of Europeans (70,000,000), starts in 1348

Joan of Arc

peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war, insane

Wars of the Roses

civil war between 2 branches of Plantagenet family (Lancaster/York) for throne, won by York

Richard III

lasts 2 years as king of england

Henry VII

first of Tudor Dynasty (1485)

Holy Inquisition

to fight heresy, tortured those that went against church until they surrendered or died

Universities

first institutions of higher learning in Europe

Vernacular

the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)

The Great Western Schism

When there were multiple Popes

Gothic Architecture

dark stone, windows narrow and tall, stained glass, sharp spires, dorrs are tall skinny and have sharp angles, everything vertical,dark inside,gargoyles,intimidating

Romanesque Architecture

solid stone churches, towers, few windows, slits, dark inside, for church and protection for people

Holy Roman Empire

Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. Not holy, Roman, or an Empire

Habsburg Dynasty

long standing ruling family of Spain and Austria

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