Human Bio: Skeletal System

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calcaneous (tob)

short bone

frontal (tob)

flat bone

femur (tob)

long bone

humerus (tob)

long bone

mandible (tob)

flat bone

metacarpal (tob)

long bone

radius (tob)

long bone

sternum (tob)

flat bone

vertebra (tob)

irregular bone

site of spongy bone in the adult

epiphysis

site of compact bone in the adult

diaphysis

site of hematopoiesis in the adult

epiphysis

sientific name for bone shaft

diaphysis

site of fat storage in adult

yellow marrow cavity

site of longitudinal growth in a child

epiphyseal plate

when blood calcium levels begin to drop below hompeostatic levels, ___ is released, causing calcium to be released from bones

parathyroid hormone

mature bone cells, called ___, maintain bone in viable state

osteocytes

disuse such as that caused by paralysis or severe lack of exercise results in muscle and bone____

atrophy

large tubercles and or increased deposit of bony matrix occur at sites of

stress and or tension

immature, or matrix depositing, bone cells are referred to as

osteoblasts

__ causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts

calcitonin

bones cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood are called___

osteoclasts

our astronauts must do isometric exercises when in space because bones atrophy under conditions of weightlessness due to lack of

gravity

layers of calcified matrix

concentric lamellae

"residences" of osteocytes

lacunae

longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels and nerves

central (haversian) canal

nonliving, structural part of bone

bone matrix

tiny canals, connecting lacunae

canaliculi

when a bone forms from a fibrous membrane, the process is caled ___ ossification

membraneous

when trapped in lacunae osteoblasts change into __ _

osteocytes

large numbers of ___ are found in the inner periosteum layer

osteoblasts

___ ossification centers appear in the epiphyses of a long bone

secondary

epiphyseal plates are made of __ _

hyaline cartilages

in appositional growth, bone reabsorption occurs on the ___ surface

endosteal

Maturation of newly formed none matrix takes ___

ten days

what are sinuses?

mucus lined air filled cavities in bone

what purpose do sinuses serve?

lighten skull and serve as chambers for speech

structure that encloses the nerve cord

vertebral arch

weight bearing part of the vertebrae

body

provides levers for the muscles to pull against

spinous process and transverse process

provides an articulation point for the ribs

body, transverse process

openings allowing spinal nerves to pass

intervertebral foramina

type of vertebrae containing foramina in the transverse proceses, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain

atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae

its dens provides a pivot for rotation of hte first cervical vertebrae

axis

transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs, spinous process points sharply downward

thoracic vertebra

composite bones, articulates with the hip bone laterally

sacrum

massive vertebrae, weight sustaining

lumbar vertebra

tailbone, vestigal fused vertebrae

coccyx

supports the head allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles

atlas

seven components unfused

atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae

twelve components unfused

thoracic vertebrae

exaggerated thoracic curvature

kyphosis

vertabral column is displaced laterally

scoliosis

intervertebral discs are made of

fibrocartilage tissue

discs provide what to the spinal collumn

flexibility

the ___ girdle is formed by the articulation of the hip bones and the sacrum

pelvic

the tough, fibrous connective tissue covering of a bone is the

periosteum

the point of fusion of the three bones forming a coxal bone is the

acetabulum

the large nerve that must be avoided when giving injections into the buttock muscles is the

sciatic nerve

the long bones of a fetus are constructed of

hyaline cartilage

bones that provide the most protection to the abdominal viscera are the

hip bones

the fist major event of fracture healing is

hematoma formation

bone is broken cleanly the ends do not penetrate the skin

simple fracture

nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone

closed reduction

a break common in children, bone splinters , but break is incomplete

greenstick fracture

a fracture in which the bone is crushed common in the vertebral column

compression fracture

surgical realignment of broken bone ends

open reduction

a result of twisting forces

spiral fracture

a __ usually forms at a fracture site

hematoma

__ at the fracture site die

osteocytes

nonbony debris at hte fracture site is removed by

phagocytes

growth of a new capillary supply into the region produces

granulation tissue

osteoblasts from the ___ migrate to the fracture site

periosteum

the __ is the first to repair mass to splint the broken bone

fibrocartilage callus

the bony callus is initionally composed of

spongy bone

has amphiarthrotic and synarthrotic examples

cartilagenous

all have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity

synovial

bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue

fibrous, suture

joints between skill bones

fibrous, suture

hip elbow knee

synovial

all examples are diarthrosis

synovial

pubic symphisis

cartilagenous, symphysis

all reinforced by ligaments

synovial

joint providing the most protection to underlying structures

fibrous suture

often contains fluid filled cushion

synoival

childs long bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage

cartilagenous epiphyseal disk

associated with bursa

synovial

age related erosion of articular cartilages and formation of painful bony spurs

osteoarthritis

__ arthritis results from bacterial invasion

acute

autoimmune disease

rheumatoid arthritis

high levels of uric acid in the blood may lead to

gout

a soft bone condition

rickets

atrophy and thinning of bone owing to hormonal changes or inactivity

osteoporosis

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