when the characteristics and internal structures of weathered minerals are altered
the layer of rock and mineral fragments produced by weathering and covering much of the earth's surface
solid, unweathered rock that lies beneath the regolith
when rock is broken down so that it has the same characteristics of the original rock
a complex mixture of minerals, water, gases, and organic matter; the portion of the Regolith that supports the growth of plants
the decayed remains of animal and plant life (organic matter); enhances a soil's ability to retain water
the soil resulting from the deposit of weathered mineral grains that are carried away from their parent rock by water, wind, or glaciers
soil that rests on top of its parent rock
a cross section where layers of the soil and the bedrock beneath the soil can be seen
each individual layer in a soil profile
consists largely of organic material: upper layer -plant litter, lower layer -Humus. Lots of bacteria, fungi, algae and insects.
Mostly mineral matter. Biological activity is high and humus is present. Almost all the living things that live in soil inhabit this zone. Also the zone from which surface water leaches minerals.
O + A
Light colored layer that contains little organic matter. Finer particles are carried away - eluvation. Water percolating down through this layer dissolves soluble inorganic soil components and carries them to deeper layers - leaching.
when water dissolves soluble inorganic soil components and carries them to deeper layers
when finer particles are carried away
Located immediately beneath the E Horizon. This horizon is the subsoil, which contains the minerals leached from the E Horizon. It is the zone of accumulation
O + A + E + B (aka "true soil")
the bottom layer of the soil that contains partially weathered rock
determines the weathering processes that will happen in a region
thick soils that are caused by chemical weathering and develop in humid, tropical climates where there is much rain
Areas that get more than 65cm of rain a year. They contain clay, quartz, and iron compounds. States surrounding the Gulf of Mexico and states east of Mississippi River have this type of soil.
Areas that get less then 65cm of rain a year. They contain large amounts of calcium carbonate which combines with excess hydrogen in the soil. Less acidic and very fertile. South West states and west of Mississippi River states.