Word history exam review pt.1

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69 terms

Sumerians

worshiped at ziggurats; Uruk; paid fines as punishment; invented cuneiform

Amorites

Semitic people; ruler was Hammurabi; known as the original Babylonians

Lydians

developed first money system that involved coins

Assyrians

Bullies of the ancient world; ruler was Asherbanipal; capital: Nineveh; warlike

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

built by Nebuchadnezzar for his wife Amytis of Media; known as a wonder of the ancient world; had its own irrigation systems; arranged of huge columns, passageways, etc

Draco

developed Draconian Rules; known as the first 'tyrant'; said that his laws were written in blood

Cleisthenes

fourth tyrant; ruler that established democracy

Marathon

Darius and the Persian army attempted to conquer this place; lost to Greece

Thermopolae

battle where Greece held off Persia with their improved Navy; Greece won

Hittites

began smelting iron ore; capital was Anatolia; had a strange appearance, but were fierce warriors

Archons

executive branch of Sparta

Ephors

executive branch of Athens

Chaldeans

new babylonians

Darius III

king of Persia that was murdered by his own men after the loss to Alexander the Great's army

Roxanna

daughter of Darius III; became wife of Alexander

Myron, Phidias, Praxiteles

Classic Greek Philosophers

hieroglyphics

arrangement of symbols used to form a language (priests)

demotic

language of the people

hieratic

languages of the priests and scribes

anthropologist

scientist who studies human remains

archaeologist

scientist who studies human remains

paleoclimatologist

weatherman of ancient history; studies climates of prehistoric times

Howard Carter

discovered King Tut's tomb

Lord Canarvon

Carter's benefactor

Sir Arthur Evans

archaeologist who discovered and name the Minoan civilization

Heinrich Schliemann

discovered Troy and Mycenae

Zorastor

persian priest who began Zorastorism (the differentiation between right and wrong)

Ahura Mazda

Zorator's good god

Ahriman

Zorastor's god of evil

cuneiform

first form of writing

symposium

the ancient form of a 'men's country club'; place of discussions of politics, trade, etc

pedagogue

male Athenian tutor

monotheism

belief in one god; ex: Judaism

polytheism

belief in more than one god; ex: Animism(pagan worship)

Pharaoh

Egyptian ruler; means 'great house'

Khufu

Egyptian pharaoh that build the Great Pyramid and was buried inside

Ramesses II

ruled for 67 years; known for building many statues and sculptures of himself

Ahmose I

drove out the Hyksos and began the 18th dynasty

King Tut

son of Ahkenaton; wished to continue his father's wishes of a monotheistic rule; cause of death is unknown

Ahkenaton

ruler of Egypt that changed the religion from polytheism to monotheism; the central god was aton(sun god); original name was amenhotep

Thutmose III

"Napoleon of Ancient Egypt"

Hatshepsut

first woman pharaoh

Nefertiti

wife of Ahkenaton; known as the most beautiful woman of her age

culture

way of life for a group of people

neanderthal

large, more primitive caveman

cro-magnon

people of the mezolithic period who overpowered the neanderthals; light skin, large forehead, stood erect, spoke out loud, had light pupils

artisan

skilled craftworker

carbon14

most common radiocarbon dating

memphis

was once White Walls; 1st capital of a united egypt

Menes

also known as Narmer; pharaoh who united upper and lower egypt; wore the double crown

mt. olympus

in the Pindus Mt. region; home region of the gods

K'hat

the living body; something that decays

sah

spirit of the body

ba

soul that was judged

ka

body double that dwelled in the tomb

sarcophagus

stone coffin used in burial

Kemet

ancient name for Egypt

shadoof

an Egyptian irrigation device

Peret

when the flooding decrease

ahket

flood season

shomu

dry season; time of harvest

Peret, Ahket, Shomu

3 seasons of egypt

Rosetta Stone

founded by Champollion; used to decode ancient Egyptian writing

Mesopotamia

Fertile Crescent; located between the Tigris-Euphrates river valley

Phoenicians

sea traders

Aramaeans

overland traders

Fertile Crescent

cradle of civilization

epic

larger than life poem; 4 components: narrator, had a hero/heroine, involved a quest, contained supernatural elements

cartouche

An oval shape inside which a pharaoh's name was inscribed in hieroglyphics to ward off evil

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