when Jackson lost the presidency even though he had the popular vote, his supporters believed that Clay and Adams had conspired to get Adams into office. Clay scratching Adam's back by giving him the presidential nod, and Adams returning the favor with a prime position in his cabinet.
Jackson believed in appointing his own staff comprised of his supporters, which also allowed him to eliminate the Adams and Clay supporters from his administration. This back scratching political system became known as this, and was present on a wide scale at all levels of government. Had several negative consequences and hurt government growth.
Whig Party (National Repubicans)
The political revolution stirred up by Jackson's alternative staffing methods also resulted in the shift from one party political system to a two-party system. Both Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams both called themselves Republicans, but they were obviously were not aligned. The supporters of each candidate polarized into two political parties. The Whig party supported Adams. Its roots were firmly entrenched in Hamilton's Federalist ideals, including supporting a national bank and a strong central government that would finance improvements within U.S. borders. Northern industrialists flocked to this party because it emphasized protecting their industries through high tariffs.
one of the two parties that emerged from Adams and Jackson. This party was picking up steam with Jackson's election in 1828. Had "common man" ideals and denounced Henry Clay's American system and supported states' rights. Democrats also defended the spoils system as a necessary element of an efficient government. Began the formation of modern political parties.
Tariff of 1828
a tariff that would significantly raise taxes on manufactured items such as wool and textiles. It was meant to embarrass Adams out of office with such an outrageous tariff. It passed in 1828 and instead of being an embarrassment to Adams, it wreaked havoc during Jackson's presidency and became known as the "Tariff of Abominations". The Southerners with the most the complain because the economy there was stifling. They felt that they were being treated unfairly, which began one of the many feelings of resentment that would eventually lead to the civil war.
The South Carolina Exposition/ Nullification
a pamphlet called this which offered persuasive arguments for nullifying the Tariff of 1828, stating it was unjust and unconstitutional. Shows the growing tension between the south, north, and the federal government and brought about many constitutional issues.
the author of the exposition, and he was the Vice President of the United States. He was raised in South Carolina and supported the efforts to nullify the tariff. Calhoun was serving as Jackson's Vice President, but he had fallen out of Jackson's favor as his successor thanks in part to Martin Van Buren's efforts. He eventually resigned out of office and became senator of South Carolina to support the nullification efforts. Shows the greater divide.
a speech from Jackson that denounced South Carolina's actions. He was disgusted by the idea that one state could nullify a federal law and secede from the union. He met their challenge by raising an army and sending it to South Carolina. Jackson stated his intention to enforce the tariff, although he too encouraged Congress to reduce the burdensome tariff.
with his standing army ready to enforce the tariff, Jackson called South Carolina's bluff. He called upon Congress to develop this bill to authorize the use of army to enforce the tariff. This bill strengthened this power to do so, which put South Carolina in a corner and forced them to compromise.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
South Carolina and Calhoun pleaded with Henry Clay to help draft a solution. Clay's proposal said that high tariffs that burdened the South would be reduced by ten percent of an eight-year period. It was passed by a small minority in Congress, but it finally brought about a significant tariff change. It allowed South Carolina to feel a small taste of victory, but this event stirred up the first rumblings that would eventually lead to the civil war.
in the early 1800s, the U.S. did not print paper money but instead minted gold and silver coins. The value of these coins was determined by the value of the metal in the coins themselves. People wanted a safe place to keep their coins, so they stored them in banks, and the bank would give them a receipt, or a bank not, as a claim against the gold and silver that had been deposited. These banknotes eventually led to huge troubles with the banks when they were not used correctly.
speculators burrowed as much money as they could from these banks that sprang up to cater to this demand. These banks were speculative in nature because they were more interested in making the fast dollar than building a secure banking business. Their successive loan practices caused many more banknotes to be in circulation in the U.S. than there were deposits to cover them. This caused confidence the banknotes to drop and made them lose value, and many more of them were needed to purchase the same amount of goods. The banking system has many flaws and can be easily abused.
Second Bank of the United States
not a government-owned bank, but a privately chartered institution headed at the time by Nicholas Biddle; though restrained from potentially making larger profits the banking industry was healthier overall, which helped to insure public confidence in the financial system and uninterrupted growth of the economy; people felt that the Bank and its president had too much power to restrict the speculative and potentially profitable business dealings of smaller banks; many people also believed the Bank had the potential to be abused since private bank is not accountable to the people; its size and its favored status as a repository of Federal funds enabled the Bank to reap substantial profits for itself though loans to large businesses
the head [president] of the Second Bank of the United States; he was able to force smaller banks to refrain from excessive printing of banknotes, which was a major contribution to inflation
Five Civilized Tribes
the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles tried to live in harmony with their white neighbors; many Indians had given up nomadic hunting and had adopted a more settled way of life; these were five Indian tribes who attempted to adapt and work with the white people possibly in hopes that they would be able to keep their land in return for cooperation
Cherokee Indian who devised the Cherokee syllabic alphabet of 85 characters so that his people could write down and preserve their thoughts; with the written language, the Cherokee were able to publish their own newspaper, The Cherokee Phoenix Cherokee National Council-government of the Cherokee Indians; developed a legal system in 1808 and in 1827 wrote a constitution enacting a system of tribal government to regulate affairs within the borders of their lands; the government included an electoral system and a legislative, judicial, and executive branch; one part of the constitution that would cause conflict was that the Cherokees were not subject to the laws of Georgia when on their own lands
Indian Removal Act 1830
President Jackson decided to move the Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River; he felt this offered the best hope to preserve peace and protect the Indians from being scattered and destroyed (I'm doing this for their good); Jackson insisted that the Indians receive a fair price for their lands and that the government pay all expenses of resettlement; bill was authorized by Congress in 1830 to move Indians across the Mississippi; opposed by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay and Davy Crockett; provided for the resettlement of all Native Americans then residing east of the Mississippi to a newly defined Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma; there the Indians would be free to pursue their lives without interference; intended to be voluntary however groups of Indians were strongly pressed to go
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
the Cherokees were not happy with the relocation plan and resisted being forced t o move; in 1831 they turned to the courts for defense against the Indian Removal Act and against the Georgia Legislature's nullification of the Cherokee laws; their cases went to the Supreme Court three times; Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but that they were not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution but rather a domestic, dependent nation and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule; blow to the Cherokee case against Georgia but cast doubt on the constitutionality of the Indian Removal Act
Worcester v. Georgia
in 1832, the Court reversed itself and ruled that the State of Georgia could not control the Cherokee within their territory; the case revolved around two missionaries, Samuel Austin Worcester and Elizur Butler, who were welcomed by the Cherokee but who had not obtained a license under Georgia law to live on Cherokee lands; ordered by Georgia to take an oath of allegiance to the state or leave Cherokee lands; they refused and were arrested and then consigned to hard labor on a chain gang for 16 months while the case was being decided; t hey would later accompany the Cherokees on their long trek to Oklahoma; in 1992, the Georgia legislature formally pardoned Worcester and Butler
Black Hawk War
the Sac and Fox tribes of Illinois and Wisconsin were also affected by the Indian Removal Act; one Sac chief signed a treaty abandoning Indian lands east of the Mississippi, and he moved the tribes to Iowa; Chief Black Hawk, however, along with a faction from the tribes, revolted against forced removal from their lands of their ancestors; in 1832, they returned to their Illinois lands and conducted a campaign of raids and ambushes; the U.S. Army responded and violently suppressed what the government considered an Indian insurrection; Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned in St. Louis in 1833
Indian tribe in Florida; callous and misguided decisions by the government contributed to the bloodiest Indian conflict in U.S. history; the Seminoles were ordered to merge with their ancestral enemy, the Creeks, for relocation; the Creeks were slave-owners, and many of the Seminoles had escaped from Creek slavery; the Seminoles were justifiably outraged and several hundred, joined by runaway black slaves, refused to leave Florida and move west; they retreated to the swamps of the Everglades, where they fought a bitter and protracted war with the U.S. Army; over seven years, this conflict killed 1,500 U.S. soldiers; in 1837, Chief Osceola was captured by treachery under a flag of truce and sent to a prison where he soon perished; 3,000 Seminoles were then forced to relocate to Oklahoma in a bitter forced march; another 1,000 hid in the Everglades, however, and continued to fight for five more years; some were never captured, and the Seminole tribe became divided by this struggle
Trail of Tears
initiated by Van Buren for the relocation of the Cherokees from Georgia land; in the fall of 1838, the U.S. government ordered the forcible removal of t he Cherokees from Georgia to the Indian Reservation in present-day Oklahoma; of the 18,000 that began the 1,000 mile, 116-day, 4,000 perished on the way of illness, cold, starvation, and exhaustion; the U.S. Army oversaw the march and forced a continuous pace at rifle and bayonet point disregarding the terrible hardships of the travelers; for this reason, the journey is known as the Trail of Tears; some historians partially blame the Cherokee leaders for failing to make preparation to leave during the time they were given; regardless of who was responsible, however, the circumstances of suffering and death remain a tragic chapter in American history