Medical Terminology Chapter 10 Word List

123 terms by littlechuckie

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inferior vena cava

receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart

superior vena cava

receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart

atrium, atria

One of the two upper cavities of the heart receiving blood from the veins

ventricles

lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out of the heart

tricuspid valve

located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. closes when the right ventricle contracts, allowing blood flow into the lungs and prevent backflow into the right atrium

pulmonary valve

a semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteries

carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs

pulmonary veins

deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium

mitral valve/bicuspid valve

Left atrioventricular valve, consists of two cusps, preventing back-flow of blood of from the ventricle to the atrium

aortic valve

a semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta

aorta

the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries

systemic circulation

circulation that supplies blood to all the body except to the lungs and heart

sinoatrial node

a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat

atrioventricular node

a node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atrium

bundle of His

a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract

right and left bundle branches

Continuations of the Bundle of HIS. They proceed along the right and left sides of the interventricular septum to the tips of the two ventricles

purkinje fibers

fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract

arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

arterioles

small vessels that receive blood from the arteries

capillaries

tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules

venules

small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins

veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

systole

the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery

diastole

the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood

blood pressure

the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels

sphygmomanometer

a pressure gauge for measuring blood pressure

anaglesic

A drug class that relieves mild to moderate pain by reducing the perception of pain

anorexia

a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite

ascites

accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity

atherosclerosis

condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries

bruit

An abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard on auscultation of an artery or an organ

claudication

disability of walking due to crippling of the legs or feet

coronary artery

the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart

cusp

a thin triangular flap of a heart valve

dysrhythmia

abnormal heart rhythm

edema

swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue

epicardium

the innermost of the two layers of the pericardium

hypertension

a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)

hypotension

abnormally low blood pressure

infarction

localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply

ischemia

local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism

lumen

a cavity or passage in a tubular organ

mediastinum

the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea and thymus

murmur

an abnormal sound of the heart

myocardium

the middle muscular layer of the heart wall

occlusion

an obstruction in a pipe or tube

pacemaker

a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat

palpable

capable of being touched or felt

palpitation

a rapid and irregular heart beat

pericardium

a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

pitting edema

edema in which firm finger pressure on the skin produces an indentation (pit) that remains for several seconds

pulmonary circulation

circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs

septum

Divides the right and left chambers of the heart

thrombosis

the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel

vasoconstriction

narrowing of blood vessels

vegetation

inactivity that is passive and monotonous, comparable to the inactivity of plant life

angi/o

blood vessel

arter/o, arteri/o

artery

ather/o

fatty plaque

cardi/o

heart

coron/o

heart

echo-

A repeated sound

my/o

muscle

megal/o

enlarged

ventricul/o

ventricle

bradycardia

abnormally slow heartbeat

pallor

unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress)

tachycardia

abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)

coronary artery disease

a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls

cyanosis

condition of blueness

dyspnea

difficult or labored respiration

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

a procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen (AKA angioplasty)

coronary bypass surgery

surgery to provide an alternate route for blood to reach heart tissue, bypassing a blocked coronary artery

angina pectoris

chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen

cardiac tamponade

acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity

cardiomyopathy

a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)

myocardial infarction

destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle

congestive heart failure

inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues

endocarditis

inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

hypertensive heart disease

high blood pressure affecting the heart

mitral valve prolapse

backward movement of the mitral valve cusps allowing regurgitation

aneurysm

the balooning out of an artery wall at a point where it has grown weak

aneurysmectomy

surgical removal of an aneurysm

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation

varicose veins (varices)

enlarged veins in which blood pools because the valves are not working right (incompetent) usually in the lower legs

vein stripping

Surgical treatment for sever varicose veins in which the affected veins are severed and removed

tetralogy of Fallot

a congenital malformation of the heart involving four distinct defects

patent ductus arteriosus

a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth

coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body

heart block; atrioventricular (AV) block

An interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle

atrial flutter

condition is which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250-400 BPM

atrial fibrillation

results in uncoordinated twitching of the atria. ventricles are unable to keep up and contract adequately

ventricular fibrillation

the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles

angiography

X-ray of the blood vessels after injecting a contrast medium

cardiac catherterization

procedure where a catheter is passed through a vein or artery and guided into the heart

echocardiography

diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart using ultra-sound waves

electrocardiogram

record of the electrical activity of the heart

magnetic resonance imaging

the use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images

AS

aortic stenosis

ASHD

arteriosclerotic heart disease

AV

atrioventricular

BBB

bundle-branch block

BP

blood pressure

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

coronary artery disease

CCU

Coronary/Critical Care Unit

CHF

congestive heart failure

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

ECG, EKG

electrocardiogram

MI

myocardial infarction

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PACs

premature atrial contractions

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PVCs

premature ventricular contractions

SA

sinoatrial

VT, V-TAC, V-TACH

Ventricular tachycardia

a-fib

Atrial fibrillation

HTN

hypertension

Four Arrhythmias

atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, heart block; atrioventricular (AV) block

Cardiac circulation pathway

inferior/superior vena cava; right atrium; tricuspid valve; right ventricle (systole); pulmonary valve; pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated); pulmonary veins (oxygenated); left atrium; mitral valve (bicuspid valve); left ventricle (diastole); aortic valve; aorta

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