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Exam #2

The Preemption Act of 1830

allowed squatters to stake out claims ahead of the land surveys

Anti-Irish prejudice was especially based upon

fear of growing Catholic influence

The Know-Nothings campaigned primarily to

limit immigrant influence

A radical wing of the Jackson Democratic Party was also known as

the Locofocos

Ironically, the Jacksonian era was characterized by

growing economic and social inequality

The Jacksonian concept of equality was a belief that

everyone should have an equal chance to succeed

Thomas Jefferson considered Andrew Jackson unfit for the presidency due to his

violent temperament

Andrew Jackson was a true Jeffersonian in his

belief in limited government

The Indian chief who resisted federal policy in Illinois and Wisconsin was

Black Hawk

The Trail of Tears resulted in

the death of thousands of Indians

William Henry Harrison

had defeated the Shawnees at Tippecanoe

Following the War of 1812, President Madison endorsed

a national university

The secretary of state through Monroe's presidency was

John Quincy Adams

The Rush-Bagot Agreement

ended naval competition on the Great Lakes by limiting naval forces there

Under the Navigation Act of 1817, importation of West Indian produce

was restricted to American vessels or vessels belonging to West Indian merchants

The most important factor behind U.S. acquisition of Florida in 1819 was

Andrew Jackson's incursion in pursuit of the Seminoles

The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819

extended the boundary of Louisiana to the Pacific

The immediate cause of the Panic of 1819 was

a sudden collapse of cotton prices

The Missouri Compromise stipulated that in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30"

slavery would be excluded

In 1824, the United States signed a treaty with Russia concerning

claims in Oregon

The Monroe Doctrine

depended upon British naval power for enforcement

Andrew Jackson

was elected to the U.S. Senate from Tennessee in 1823

Jefferson's inauguration was notable for

its being the first in Washington, D.C.

In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court

declared a federal law unconstitutional

In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court chief justice who established the principle of judicial review was

John Marshall

To avoid the problems associated with political parties running multiple candidates for the presidency, Congress

passed the Twelfth Amendment providing that electors use separate ballots to vote for a president and a vice president

Led the "Old Republicans"

John Randolph

Aaron Burr's conspiracy

aimed to give him a private western empire

Jefferson's Embargo Act

sought to stop all American exports

Which war hawk loudly proclaimed that his state of Kentucky was ready to march on Canada and acquire its lucrative fur trade?

Henry Clay

The Treaty of Ghent

ended the war

Washington's secretary of state was

Thomas Jefferson

Washington's Secretary of the Treasury was

Alexander Hamilton

Washington's Secretary of War was

Henry Knox

Washington's Attorney General was

Edmund Randolph

The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution

said that powers not specifically given to the national government remained with the states or the people

As a result of Jay's Treaty

the British agreed to evacuate their northwest posts by 1796

The Treaty of Greenville was an agreement between the United States and

Indians on the northwest frontier

The Alien Act of 1798

was aimed especially at French and Irish Republicans

Edmond Genet

encouraged Americans to attack Spanish territory on the frontier

Townshend Acts

Taxed: Tea, China, Paper, etc. And used ritz of assistance as search warrants to combat smuggling.

The Boston Massacre

British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others. British troops had been stationed in Boston, capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, since 1768 in order to protect and support crown-appointed colonial officials attempting to enforce unpopular Parliamentary legislation.

Paul Revere

an American silversmith, early industrialist, and a patriot in the American Revolution. He is most famous for alerting Colonial militia of approaching British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Regulator Movement

a North Carolina uprising, lasting from approximately 1765 to 1771, in which citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials.

Battle of Alamance

The final battle of the War of the Regulation, a rebellion in colonial North Carolina over issues of taxation and local control. Governor sends militia to meet the 2,000 regulators and scars them away with gun fire. 7 ring leaders are tried and executed.

Gaspee Affair

the Gaspee was a ship to stop smugglers. Thought The Hannah was smuggling. The Gaspee gets stranded and the towns people row out and burn it down.

Committees of Correspondence

The group forms to start writing letters to other colonies to be informed on a legislative level of news that is happening.
-meets for 13 days

The Tea Act

First corporate bailout of the East India trading Co. Government took away the compans tax so the price would go down.

the Boston Tea Party

Dec 16. Samuel Addams and the Sons of Liberty dress as mohawk indians, board the ship and dump the tea into the harbor.

The Intolerable Acts

British Gov. declares several acts on Boston for the tea.
-Boston Port Act: Closes Boston's port to starve them.
-Massachusetts Charter Act: Take away their right to self govern.
-Self Justice Act: Can't have a judiciary/court.

First Continental Congress

All colonies send representatives to Philadelphia to discuss.
-Create the "Continental Sociation": Letter to the king saying if he does not give in, they will not import, export, consume british goods.

Thomas Gage

was a British general, best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as military commander in the early days of the American Revolution.

Patrick Henry

"Give me Liberty or give me Death..."

Lexington & Concord

The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge, near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America.

Ft. Ticonderoga

During the American Revolutionary War, the fort again saw action in May 1775 when the Green Mountain Boys and other state militia under the command of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured it in a surprise attack. Cannons captured were transported to Boston where their deployment forced the British to abandon the city in March 1776. The Americans held it until June 1777, when British forces under General John Burgoyne again occupied high ground above the fort and threatened the Continental Army troops, leading them to withdraw from the fort and its surrounding defenses.

Second Continental Congress

Meet as a body throughout the revolution. They declare George Washington as the commander of the continental Army.

Benedict Arnold

-Married 19 yr old Peggy Shippen.
-While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted to surrender it to the British forces. After the plot was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general.

Ethan Allen

A farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War.

George Washington

Was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, serving as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He also presided over the convention that drafted the Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution established the position of President, which Washington held.

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was peripherally involved in the battle and was the original objective of both colonial and British troops, and is occasionally referred to as the "Battle of Breed's Hill."
On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British generals were planning to send troops out from the city to occupy the unoccupied hills surrounding the city. In response to this intelligence, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill, constructed an earthen redoubt on Breed's Hill, and built lightly fortified lines across most of the Charlestown Peninsula.

Pyrrhic Victory

A victory with such a devastating cost that it carries the implication that another such victory will ultimately lead to defeat. Someone who wins a "Pyrrhic victory" has been victorious in some way; however, the heavy toll negates any sense of achievement or profit.

Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms.

A document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775, to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the American Revolutionary War. The final draft of the Declaration was written by John Dickinson, who incorporated language from an earlier draft by Thomas Jefferson.

Olive Branch Petition

Was adopted by the Continental Congress in July 1775 in an attempt to avoid a full-blown war with Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict. In August 1775 the colonies were formally declared in rebellion by the Proclamation of Rebellion.

Committee of five

Of the Second Continental Congress drafted and presented to the Congress what became known as America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.

Trenton

Washington crossed the delaware and took the Hessian Army occupying Trenton.

Monmouth Courthouse

Battle fought on June 28, 1778 in Monmouth County, New Jersey. The Continental Army under General George Washington attacked the rear of the British Army column commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton as they left Monmouth Court House.

Charles Lee

An English man who served as a General of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. Lee also served earlier in the British army during the Seven Years War.

West Point

The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778. It became the oldest continuously operating army-post in the United States. The Great Hudson River Chain and high ground above the narrow "S" curve in the river enabled the Continental Army to prevent British Royal Navy ships from sailing upriver and thus dividing the Colonies. As commander of the fortifications at West Point, however, Benedict Arnold committed his infamous act of treason, attempting to sell the fort to the British.

Battle of Camden

On August 16, 1780, British forces under Lieutenant General Charles, Lord Cornwallis routed the American forces of Major General Horatio Gates north of Camden, South Carolina, strengthening the British hold on the Carolinas following the capture of Charleston.

Horatio Gates

A retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga, and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden. Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial military figures" because of his role in the Conway Cabal, which attempted to discredit and replace George Washington; the battle at Saratoga; and his actions during and after his defeat at Camden.

Nathanael Greene

Was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer.

Battle of King's Mountain

A decisive battle between the Patriot and Loyalist militias in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. The actual battle took place on October 7, 1780, nine miles south of the present-day town of Kings Mountain, North Carolina in rural York County, South Carolina, where the Patriot militia defeated the Loyalist militia commanded by British Major Patrick Ferguson of the 71st Foot.

Daniel Morgan

An American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. One of the most gifted battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War, he later commanded troops during the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion.

Battle of Cowpens

A decisive victory by Continental army forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was a turning point in the reconquest of South Carolina from the British.

Guilford Courthouse

A force of 1,900 British troops under the command of Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis defeated an American force of 4,000 troops, commanded by Major General Nathanael Greene.

Yorktown

The latter taking place on October 19, 1781, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, it proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender by Cornwallis of his army prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict.

Treaty of Paris

Signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other.

Articles of Confederation

Was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution.

Land Ordinance of 1785

Adopted by the United States Congress on May 20, 1785. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress did not have the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the United States. Therefore, the immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired at the 1783.

Shay's Rebellion

An armed uprising that took place in central and western Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and one of the rebel leaders.

Annapolis Convention

A meeting in 1786 at Annapolis, Maryland, of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that unanimously called for a constitutional convention. The formal title of the meeting was a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government. Long dissatisfied with the weak Articles of Confederation, Alexander Hamilton of New York played a major leadership role. He drafted its resolution for a constitutional convention, and in doing so brought his longtime desire to have a more powerful, more financially independent federal government one step closer to reality.

The Constitutional Convention

Took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution.

the Virginia Plan

A proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The Virginia Plan was notable for its role in setting the overall agenda for debate in the convention and, in particular, for setting forth the idea of population-weighted representation in the proposed national legislature.

James Madison

An American statesman and political theorist, the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights.

The New Jersey Plan

a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787. The plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan, which called for two houses of Congress, both elected with apportionment according to population.The less populous states were adamantly opposed to giving most of the control of the national government to the more populous states, and so proposed an alternative plan that would have kept the one-vote-per-state representation under one legislative body from the Articles of Confederation. The New Jersey Plan was opposed by James Madison and Edmund Randolph.

"The Great Compromise"

An agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by James Madison, along with proportional representation in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states.

Roger Sherman

An early American lawyer and politician, as well as a founding father. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic. He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

Federalists

The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801. The party was formed by Alexander Hamilton, who, during George Washington's first term, built a network of supporters, largely urban bankers and businessmen, to support his fiscal policies. These supporters grew into the Federalist Party committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government. The United States' only Federalist president was John Adams.

Anti-Federalist's

A movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy.

Democracy

A form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows eligible citizens to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.

Republic

A form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers, and where offices of states are subsequently directly or indirectly elected or appointed rather than inherited. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of state is not a monarch.

Federalism

A political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant with a governing representative head.

Federal Hall

Built in 1700 as New York's City Hall, later served as the first capitol building of the United States of America under the Constitution, and was the site of George Washington's inauguration as the first President of the United States. It was also where the United States Bill of Rights was introduced in the First Congress.

Federalist No. 10

An essay written by James Madison and the tenth of the Federalist Papers, a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution.

Federalist No. 48

An essay by James Madison, the forty-eighth of the Federalist Papers. This paper builds on Federalist No. 47. In that essay Madison argued for separation of powers; in this one he argues that the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government must not be totally divided. It is titled, "These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other."

Federalist No. 45

"The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered", is an essay by James Madison. Madison argues that the strength of the federal government under the proposed United States Constitution does not pose a danger to the individual states, a major concern of the Anti-Federalists.

Federalist No. 84

An essay entitled "Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered," is one of the Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton.notable for presenting the idea that a Bill of Rights was not a necessary component of the proposed United States Constitution. The Constitution, as originally written, did not specifically enumerate or protect the rights of the people.

Judiciary Act of 1789

Was a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary. Article III, section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court," and such inferior courts as Congress saw fit to establish. It made no provision, though, for the composition or procedures of any of the courts, leaving this to Congress to decide.

John Jay

An American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, and the first Chief Justice of the United States. As a leader of the new Federalist Party, Jay was the Governor of New York State.

Jeffersonian Republicans

The political party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1791. It stood in opposition to the Federalist Party and dominated American politics from 1800 to the 1820s, during the First Party System.

The Whiskey Rebellion

Was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Farmers who used their grain in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to increase central government power, in particular to fund his policy of assuming the war debt of those states which had failed to pay. The farmers, who resisted, many war veterans, were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation.

Citizen Genet

A French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.

Jay's Treaty

A treaty between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Great Britain that is credited with averting war,[3] resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the American Revolution,[4] and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.

Pinckney's Treaty

Established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.

Eli Whitney

An American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1793

Guaranteed the right of a slaveholder to recover an escaped slave.

Slave Trade Act of 1794

A law passed by the United States Congress that limited American involvement in the trade of human cargo. This was the first of several acts of Congress that eventually stopped the importation of slaves to the United States.

The XYZ Affair

Was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, during the administration of John Adams, that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. It led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War, which raged at sea from 1798 to 1800. The Federalist Party took advantage of the national anger to build an army and pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to damage the rival Democratic-Republican Party.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War. They were signed into law by President John Adams.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively.

the Quasi War

An undeclared war fought mostly at sea between the United States and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800.

The Election of 1800

Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System.

Albert Gallatin

A Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 1831, he founded the University of the City of New York. Renamed New York University in 1896, it is one of the largest private, non-profit universities in the United States.

James Madison

An American statesman and political theorist, the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights.

Marbury v. Madison

A landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government.

Louisiana Purchase

Was the acquisition by the United States of America in 1803 of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana. The U.S. paid 50 million francs plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs, for a total sum of 15 million dollars for the Louisiana territory.

USS Philadelphia

-Sailing Frigate
Putting to sea for duty in the West Indies to serve in the Quasi-War with France, she arrived on the Guadeloupe Station in May 1800 and relieved the frigate Constellation. During this cruise she captured five French armed vessels and recaptured six merchant ships that had fallen into French hands.

USS Constitution

A wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. Named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States of America, she is the world's oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat. Her first duties with the newly formed United States Navy were to provide protection for American merchant shipping during the Quasi-War with France and to defeat the Barbary pirates in the First Barbary War.

Burr-Hamilton duel

A duel between two prominent American politicians, the former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and sitting Vice President Aaron Burr, on July 11, 1804. At Weehawken in New Jersey, Burr shot and fatally wounded Hamilton. Hamilton was carried to the home of William Bayard on the Manhattan shore, where he died at 2:00 p.m. the next day.

Embargo Act

A general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars.

HMS Leopard

a 50-gun Portland-class fourth rate of the Royal Navy. She served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812.

USS Chesapeake

A 38-gun wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy. She was one of the original six frigates. A Chesapeake began her career during the Quasi-War with France and saw service in the First Barbary War.

Battle of Tippecanoe

Between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa were leaders of a confederacy of Native Americans from various tribes that opposed U.S. expansion into Native territory.

William Henry Harrison

last President to be born before the United States Declaration of Independence.

Tecumseh

A Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy (known as Tecumseh's Confederacy) which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812. Tecumseh has become an iconic folk hero in American, Aboriginal and Canadian history.

The Prophet

Tecumseh's brother, Tenskwatawa.

War Hawks

A term used in politics for someone favoring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.

Battle of the Thames

A decisive United States victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain. It took place on October 5, 1813, near present-day Chatham, Ontario in Upper Canada. It resulted in the death of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, and the destruction of the Native American coalition which he led.

"The Star Spangled Banner"

Francis scott keys, written at the bombing of Fort McHenry.

The Battle of New Orleans

Was the final major battle of the War of 1812.[3][4] American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.

Andrew Jackson

the 7th President of the United States (1829-1837). Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814), and the British at the Battle of New Orleans (1815). A polarizing figure who dominated the Second Party System in the 1820s and 1830s, as president he dismantled the Second Bank of the United States and initiated ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American tribes from the Southeast to west of the Mississippi River. His enthusiastic followers created the modern Democratic Party. The 1830-1850 period later became known as the era of Jacksonian democracy.

Hartford Convention

An event in 1814-1815 in the United States in which New England Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power. Despite radical outcries among Federalists for New England secession and a separate peace with Great Britain, moderates outnumbered them and extreme proposals were not a major focus of the debate.

Treaty of Ghent

Was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom.

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