Exam 2: Chapters 5-8

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Walker is conducting research on scholarship recipients at Faber College. In his sample of 250 students, he is ensuring he has a proportionate number of students based on class standing, race, sex, and major course of study. Walker's sample is an example of a(n) ________.
A) closed-ended sample
B) self-administered sample
C) stratified random sample
D) universal sample

stratified random sample

Michael is going to survey members of the gay and lesbian student union and gather data on their personal lives, interests, and demographics to develop a profile of their membership. To be most successful and receive the most valid responses, what should Michael do?
A) Michael should begin the questionnaire by asking neutral questions.
B) Michael should refrain from asking for data on sexual behavior.
C) Michael should distribute the survey only to volunteers.
D) Michael should include a statement in his survey that he is gay.

Michael should begin the questionnaire by asking neutral questions

What is the greatest flaw in using self-administered questionnaires for a research study?
A) They are labor-intensive.
B) They can be administered only to small groups.
C) They are expensive compared to other research techniques.
D) They cause the researcher to lose control of the data collection.

they cause the researcher to lose control of the data collection

Phillip would like to collect information from a large number of people, but he has a limited budget. In order to sample a large number, but to keep the cost low, Phillip should use ________ as a research method.
A) self-administered questionnaires
B) stratified random samples
C) structured interviews
D) unstructured interviews

self-administered questionnaires

A researcher is asking questions of a serious nature, and a respondent gives only "socially
acceptable" answers. This is an example of ________.
A) interviewer bias
B) research fraud
C) research bias
D) poor sample selection

interviewer bias

Which of the following examination formats is most likely to incorporate closed-ended questions?
A) a multiple-choice exam
B) an oral exam
C) an essay exam
D) a fill-in-the-blank exam

a multiple-choice exam

Jasmine is an African American graduate student. She is conducting research on the effects that affirmative action programs have had on American corporations. She found that 95 percent of the subjects she personally interviewed with open-ended questions, covering a diverse sample of 500
corporate executives, stated that they approved of affirmative action. Her response rate approving
affirmative action programs was dramatically higher than the national average. In view of this, Jasmine's research was most likely affected by ________.
A) biased sample
B) interviewer bias
C) research fraud
D) poor interviewing technique

interviewer bias

An attractive African American woman is conducting random interviews on campus to gather data on students' opinions on the reverse discrimination suit filed by white students at the
University of Michigan School of Law. Four out of five of the white respondents and virtually all of the African American respondents favor the court's ruling and supports "bonus points" being given to applicants of color. Based on this information, what is probably affecting the data collection process?
A) faulty hypothesis
B) misunderstanding of the subjects' world
C) interviewer bias
D) inappropriate research method

interviewer bias

Sam is conducting interviews to assess students' opinions on how President Bush handled the second Gulf War. Because this is a controversial topic at Sam's conservative campus, what is the
best way for him to develop a sense of rapport with the sample?
A) He should pay the interviewed students a stipend for their cooperation.
B) He should tell the students he interviews their identities will be kept secret.
C) He should begin by asking neutral questions and holding off on sensitive issues.
D) He should begin by telling the participants that he is a Democrat.

he should tell the students he interviews their identities will be kept secret

Juanita is conducting survey research for the Colgate-Palmolive Company. The company recently sent several cases of personal-sized toothpaste to Dr. Yankum as a part of a promotion. Juanita is
surveying patients as they leave Dr. Yankum's office to ask if the dentist gave them any hygiene items to continue quality dental care. Juanita has discovered that practically every patient received Colgate and has concluded in her report that dentists prefer Colgate toothpaste over other brands. What flaw exists in Juanita's research?
A) She has chosen an inappropriate research design.
B) She is using a biased sample to collect her data.
C) She is conducting research that is tainted by interviewer bias.
D) She is relying on marketing research, which is unscientific and therefore invalid.

she is using a biased sample to collect her data

Which of the following research errors is less likely to be classified as fraud and more likely to be considered as simply sloppy work?
A) analyzing the data incorrectly
B) disregarding undesirable results
C) asking biased questions
D) choosing a biased sample

analyzing the data incorrectly

While conducting research on domestic abuse, Tanya asked workers at a battered women's shelter, "What do you think causes some men to abuse their wives?" She then permitted the workers to elaborate on their answers. What is the term used to describe such a question, one that leads to this
type of answering option?
A) This is an example of an open-ended question.
B) The question and answer are a part of secondary analysis.
C) The question and answer are examples of generalizability in research.
D) This is an example of a closed-ended question

this is an example of an open-ended question

What is another term used to describe the research method called participant observation?
A) fieldwork
B) content analysis
C) survey research
D) unobtrusive measures


Jarod is conducting research on the homeless. For six weeks, he has lived among the homeless "24/7," sleeping on the street or at a shelter, and engaging in the same activities as the population he is studying. By doing so, Jarod has been able to gather a broad understanding of the homeless, their needs, and characteristics. In view of this, Jarod is using ________ as a method of gathering
A) representative sampling
B) content analysis
C) secondary analysis
D) participant observation

participant observation

The feeling of trust that researchers establish with their respondents is referred to as ________.
A) confidentiality
B) commitment
C) rapport
D) empathy


What is the major problem with using participant observation as a research tool?
A) It is unacceptable based on standards of the American Sociological Association.
B) It lacks both validity and reliability.
C) It is highly biased.
D) It often leads to findings that lack generalizability

it often leads to findings that lack generalizability

When a researcher focuses on a single event, situation, or individual, the resulting research is known as ________.
A) an experiment
B) secondary analysis
C) fieldwork
D) a case study

a case study

Every research method has its drawbacks. Which method often leads the current researcher to question the manner in which the data were gathered, the accuracy of the data, and the training of the original researchers?
A) secondary analysis
B) experiments
C) participant observation
D) interviews

secondary analysis

If a researcher is reading diaries to collect information about the attitudes of rape victims, he or she is using ________ to collect the data.
A) ethnography
B) dramaturgical analysis
C) unstructured interviews
D) documents


Dr. Zimbardo is examining the effect that pornographic movies have on the ways in which single men respond to the needs of women. He has one group of men watch pornographic films and
another watch Three Stooges episodes. He then tests their reactions to women in need by showing them short film clips and following up with a series of questions. What research method is Dr. Zimbardo using?
A) participant observation
B) secondary analysis
C) the survey
D) the experiment

the experiment

In an experiment, one group of participants is exposed to treatment, another is exposed to an application identified to them as treatment, and another is not exposed to any treatment. In such a
procedure, the participants who are not exposed to any form of treatment, either genuine or false,
are classified as the ________ group.
A) placebo
B) rival
C) experimental
D) control


In experimental research, the variable that is the cause of change (the independent variable) must precede that which is changed (the dependent variable). This condition is called ________.
A) random selection
B) rapport
C) reliability
D) temporal priority

temporal priority

There is a high correlation between the number of Americans who pay income tax in the month of April and the number of swimsuits sold. Which of the following statements is the best description
of this relationship?
A) It is an indirect relationship.
B) It is a cause-and-effect relationship.
C) It is a spurious relationship.
D) It is classified as a null hypothesis.

it is a spurious relationship

The three conditions necessary for causation between variables are ________, ________, and ________.
A) correlation; temporal priority; lack of spurious correlation
B) negative correlation; spurious correlation; correlation coefficient
C) temporal priority; negative correlation; positive correlation
D) correlation coefficient; temporal priority; positive correlation

correlation; temporal priority; lack of spurious correlation

Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whiskey bottles in trashcans to measure the level of whiskey consumption in town. These researchers are using a method of research referred to as
A) survey research
B) documentation
C) participant observation
D) unobtrusive measures

unobtrusive measures

There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?
A) They are an aggregate.
B) They are a category.
C) They are a group.
D) They are a social group.

they are a social group

Patti Sue is having difficulty adjusting to George, the new office supervisor. George is quite a "bean counter" and has shown a great deal of insensitivity toward everyone in the office. In view of this, what is the most likely course of action Patti Sue and the other office workers will take?
A) Patti Sue will contact a lawyer to discuss a class action lawsuit.
B) They will probably resign from their positions in protest.
C) The entire office staff will call in sick tomorrow.
D) All the affected office workers will develop a greater sense of social solidarity.

all the affected office workers will develop a greater sense of social solidarity

In which of the following settings would shaming be LEAST effective?
A) a small religious cult
B) a close knit society, such as the Amish
C) a large inner-city neighborhood
D) the family

a large inner-city neighborhood

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral
outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
A) degradation ceremonies
B) profiling
C) sanctions
D) stereotyping

degradation ceremonies

The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.
A) Herbert Spencer
B) Harold Garfinkel
C) Talcott Parsons
D) Erving Goffman

Harold Garfinkel

In The Scarlet Letter, why was Hester Prynne required to wear a scarlet "A" on her dress?
A) Sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming.
B) Psychologically, it provided her the opportunity to face what she had become.
C) It was a ʺbadge of honorʺ that many other women wished they could achieve.
D) It indicated she was at the head of her class in what she had done.

sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.
A) labeling
B) control
C) differential association
D) strain


In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their
deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.
A) techniques of neutralization
B) ideologies
C) strategies of justification
D) labeling

techniques of neutralization

Matthew and Ryan are devout Christian Fundamentalists and believe that homosexuality is
against God's will and that homosexuals deserve to be punished. They spend a couple evenings each week in gay bashing activities that include physical violence and verbal assaults. Based on
their rationalization, which technique of neutralization is most applicable for Matthew and Ryan to maintain positive self-images?
A) denial of injury
B) denial of a victim
C) condemn the condemner
D) denial of responsibility

denial of a victim

When Anthony worked as a prison counselor he would often ask property offenders why they
committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, "I had to feed my family." How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?
A) denial of injury
B) condemnation of the condemners
C) denial of responsibility
D) appeal to higher loyalties

appeal to higher loyalties

The early sociologist who argued that deviance might be functional for society was ________.
A) Henri Saint Simon
B) Karl Marx
C) Max Weber
D) Emile Durkheim

Emile Durkheim

Which type of sociologists would consider deviance to be a natural part of society?
A) functionalists
B) conflict theorists
C) symbolic interactionists
D) neo-conflict theorists


All of the following theories follow the principles of symbolic interactionism EXCEPT for which one?
A) strain theory
B) control theory
C) differential association theory
D) labeling theory

strain theory

John desires the best things in life: a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
A) a conformist
B) an innovator
C) a rebel
D) a ritualist

an innovator

Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?
A) They all conformists.
B) They are all ritualists.
C) They are all rebels.
D) They are all retreatists.

they are all retreatists

The ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
A) control
B) illegitimate opportunity
C) strain
D) labeling


According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
A) anomie
B) retreatism
C) latent dysfunction
D) mass hysteria


According to Cloward and Ohlin, what is the underlying cause of deviance and delinquency in unstable slums of a city?
A) a rival struggle for power
B) unethical police behavior
C) the racial composition of the city
D) illegitimate opportunity structures

illegitimate opportunity structures

Cloward and Ohlin addressed the street hustler as a role model for youth and the methods used to earn easy money through a life of crime. What did they call this career path of delinquency?
A) illegitimate opportunity structure
B) containment theory
C) the theory of differential association
D) social bond theory

illegitimate opportunity structure

The term white collar crime was coined by sociologist ________ to refer to crimes that people of respectable social status commit in the course of their occupation.
A) Robert Merton
B) Erving Goffman
C) Frank Tannenbaum
D) Edwin Sutherland

Edwin Sutherland

All of the following acts qualify as a white collar crime EXCEPT for which one?
A) a police officer taking $100 to refrain from writing a speeding ticket
B) a businessperson classifying parking tickets as job hunting expenses on an income tax return
C) an executive writing off the corporationʹs million-dollar fine as investment capital
D) a bank teller robbing the First National bank

a police officer taking $100 to refrain from writing a speeding ticket

According to sociologist Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, boys in urban areas are motivated to join
gangs for a number of reasons. Which of the following reasons LEAST qualifies as one of the reasons Jankowski discovered why urban youth join gangs?
A) to help the community
B) recreational opportunity
C) to escape broken homes
D) access to money

to escape broken homes

The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2005 was ________.
A) car theft
B) drug offenses
C) murder
D) bank robbery

car theft

Based on the 2009 edition of the Statistical Abstract in the United States, the state with the lowest rate of violent crime in America is ________, while the state with the highest rate of violent crime is ________.
A) Montana; New Jersey
B) Wyoming; New York
C) Colorado; California
D) Maine; South Carolina

Maine; South Carolina

Conflict theorists classify the few who own the means of production as ________ and those who sell their labor to these owners as ________.
A) capitalists; the working class
B) capitalists; the petty bourgeoisie
C) the upper middle class; the lower middle class
D) moral entrepreneurs; the working class

capitalists; the working class

Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
A) the symbolic interactionist perspective
B) the conflict perspective
C) the structuralist perspective
D) the functionalist perspective

the conflict perspective

How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the
workforce who are subject to layoffs?
A) petty bourgeoisie
B) working poor
C) proletariat
D) bourgeoisie

working poor

Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station, he has taped pictures of his wife and granddaughter and of last year's Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by Tom to ________.
A) promote his "all-American" status to his colleagues
B) simply decorate his office
C) resist alienation
D) bond with his supervisor, who is also a grandparent

resist alienation

Nick was a promising caseworker for an agency. After earning several lower-level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick's abilities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the ________.
A) Weber effect
B) Peter principle
C) Kanter syndrome
D) Ouchi theorem

Peter principle

Sam, an aspiring and talented young attorney, has been promoted every year since he joined the law firm of Howard, Howard, and Fine. Unfortunately, Sam feels he cannot handle the responsibilities of his latest promotion. In an effort to keep his newly acquired job title, Sam has begun to take credit for the work done by the employees he supervises. Sam's behavior is an example of ________.
A) the Peter principle
B) bureaucratic ritualism
C) the iron law of oligarchy
D) the Ouchi theorem

the Peter principle

When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a "rapid response
force" to fight terrorism. Sociologists would call this shift in focus an example of ________.
A) bureaucratic ritualism
B) the Peter principle
C) the Thomas theorem
D) goal displacement

goal displacement

The Boy Scouts, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organizations, and many groups that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of ________.
A) bureaucratic alienation
B) bureaucracies
C) voluntary associations
D) informal organizations

voluntary associations

Which Frenchman toured America in the early nineteenth century, noting the many voluntary
organizations in which Americans held membership and documenting these findings in his book,
Democracy in America?
A) Pierre DuPont
B) Alexander Maconochie
C) Philippe Pinel
D) Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville

As voluntary organizations, what do the College Young Democrats, Kiwanis Club, Uptown Stamp
Collectors' Club, and National Rifle Association all have in common?
A) They all offer people an identity.
B) They all bring people into the political mainstream.
C) They are all primary groups.
D) They all generate social change.

they all offer people an identity

A common thread that runs through all voluntary associations is ________.
A) mutual interest among members
B) an effort to maintain social order
C) the purpose of the association
D) the size of the group

mutual interest among members

The concept of the "iron law" of oligarchy was developed by sociologist ________.
A) Robert Michels
B) Ryan Graham
C) Michael Burawoy
D) Irving Janis

Robert Michels

The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________.
A) the Protestant ethic
B) the iron law of oligarchy
C) the spirit of capitalism
D) the Thomas theorem

the iron law of oligarchy

According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, why do "hidden values" exist in an organization?
A) to assist women and minorities in gaining promotions
B) as self-fulfilling stereotypes to direct the organization
C) as a means to promote teamwork
D) to help the organization be successful

as self-fulfilling stereotypes to direct the organization

According to Kanter, organizations sometimes showcase women and minorities by placing them in highly visible positions to demonstrate how progressive they are. Regardless of the type of organization they are in, what do these highly visible positions usually have in common?
A) They are highly paid jobs directed toward "fast-track" promotions.
B) They are jobs with little power and minimal authority.
C) They are supervisory jobs with considerable power and autonomy.
D) They are highly competitive positions sought after by most members of the organization.

they are jobs with little power and minimal authority

Based on the research of Rosabeth Moss Kanter, what is meant by the term hidden corporate culture?
A) an organization's tendency to shift goals to perpetuate its existence
B) the placement of minorities in highly visible but powerless positions
C) the tendency to promote individuals to their level of incompetence
D) the values and beliefs of the corporation that shape employees' attitudes

the values and beliefs of the corporation that shape employees' attitudes

In her study of 47 corporations, what was the relationship that Rosabeth Moss Kanter discovered between the flexibility of a corporation and corporate profit?
A) Kanter discovered that the relationship was direct, showing that greater flexibility increases profits.
B) Kanter discovered a spurious relationship existed between the two variables.
C) Kanter discovered that the relationship was indirect, indicating flexibility created duplication and waste.
D) Kanter discovered a null relationship existed between the two variables.

Kanter discovered that the relationship was direct, showing that greater flexibility increases profits

As diversity in the workplace continues to increase, more than half of U.S. workers include which three groups?
A) older adults, minorities, and women
B) working class, homosexuals, and young adults
C) immigrants, the Amish, and older adults
D) minorities, immigrants, and women

minorities, immigrants, and women

Most major companies sponsor "diversity training" lectures and workshops for their employees.
What is the ultimate purpose of these efforts?
A) to stimulate an understanding of cultural differences
B) to professionally develop staff
C) to emphasize the qualities that will lead to a worker's success
D) to increase company profits and competitiveness

to increase company profits and competitiveness

Max Weber's prediction that ________ would come to dominate social life has withstood the test of time more than any other prediction in sociology.
A) religions
B) corporations
C) bureaucracies
D) enterprises


Organizing a workplace in such a way that it develops rather than impedes human potential is known as ________.
A) humanizing a work setting
B) empowering workers
C) restructuring a workplace
D) instilling employee loyalty

humanizing a work setting

By a narrow margin, Dr. Moreau was elected chair of the largest academic department at Faber College. She appointed faculty members who support her views to the most influential and important committees in the department. This group of loyal colleagues, on which Dr. Moreau is relying to advance her policies, is an example of a(n) ________.
A) out-group
B) primary group
C) consortium
D) inner circle

inner circle

Bob works at an automobile factory that organizes its workers into small groups that meet regularly to discuss ways to increase production and efficiency. Individual workers are often
singled out and recognized for their contributions to the organization. These are examples of attempts to ________.
A) increase the number of employees
B) increase profits by downsizing
C) humanize the work setting to develop employee potential
D) alienate the "deadbeats" in the corporation

humanize the work setting to develop employee potential

Which of the following is the best example of worker empowerment?
A) A small work team in the design department has decided to fire one of the members of its department.
B) The CEO has just opened a corporate-run daycare center for the employees to use free of charge.
C) The union president has called a wildcat strike because of unsafe working conditions.
D) The workers' union has just negotiated the most lucrative contract in the company's history.

a small work team in the design department has decided to fire one of the members of its department

It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as a fringe benefit for their employees. What has evaluative research found regarding the costs and benefits of these facilities?
A) Daycare facilities are ineffective because they are used by only a few employees.
B) The results of the research are inconclusive.
C) Operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves production, and increases staff morale.
D) Because of the large number of employees using them, daycare facilities are too expensive to operate.

operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves production, and increases staff morale

In companies with stock ownership plans, what was the result of studies related to their profit
A) Employee-owned companies made more profit than traditionally owned companies.
B) More research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the comparison of profits between employee-owned and traditionally owned companies.
C) Employee-owned companies made about the same profit as traditionally owned companies.
D) Employee-owned companies made less profit than traditionally owned companies.

more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the comparison of profits between employee-owned and traditionally owned companies

It is believed by some sociologists that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation. This belief is most aligned with the
________ perspective.
A) symbolic interactionist
B) structuralist
C) functionalist
D) conflict


Which phrase best describes primary groups as Charles Cooley envisioned them?
A) the blessing of friendship
B) the cornerstone of self-development
C) the miracle of society
D) the springs of life

the springs of life

A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.
A) clique
B) primary group
C) secondary group
D) community

primary group

Of the following groups, the ________ plays the most significant role in the development of the
A) out-group
B) in-group
C) secondary group
D) primary group

primary group

If a secondary group does not satisfy one's need for intimate association, which of the following is most likely to occur?
A) The secondary group will break down into primary groups.
B) The secondary group will develop into a reference group.
C) The secondary group will develop into an out-group.
D) The individual will cease to exist.

the secondary group will break down into primary groups

Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's
Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________.
A) social networks
B) secondary groups
C) reference groups
D) out-groups


Because of our sense of belonging and loyalty to in-groups, we often judge our own group's traits as virtues, but view the same traits in other groups as vices. This judgment of superiority is an example of ________.
A) a lack of judgment
B) subcultural relativity
C) objectivity
D) a double standard

a double-standard

For many college professors, their own teachers served as role models. Kody Scott looked up to older gang members as his idols. In both cases, former teachers and older gang members qualify as
being ________.
A) social others
B) reference groups
C) secondary groups
D) generalized others

reference groups

Jane, Mark, Courtney, and Kelly are enrolled in the 8:00 a.m. sociology course at their college.
After studying together for the first test, they started sitting together in class and chose to work together on group projects. During spring break, they decided to go on a trip as a group. These four students would be considered members of a(n) ________.
A) secondary group
B) reference group
C) clique
D) aggregate


________ are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.
A) Cyber socializations
B) Secondary societies
C) Electronic communities
D) Social networks

social networks

Which phrase became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram conducted on "the small world phenomenon"?
A) situations defined as real are real in their consequences
B) six degrees of separation
C) the world is a stage
D) society as the sum of its parts

six degrees of separation

Milgram's experiment involving the "small world phenomenon" utilized two groups. He referred to these two groups as the ________ and the ________.
A) primary; secondary
B) in-group; out-group
C) givers; takers
D) starters; targets

starters; targets

Sociologist Judith Kleinfeld felt Milgram "stacked the deck" in his "small world phenomenon"
experiment because ________.
A) he violated the ethical standards of research
B) he only used men as the target population
C) many of his targets and starters shared a common interest
D) most of his sample lived in the same geographic area

many of his targets and starters shared a common interest

When criticizing Milgram's experiment on small group phenomenon, Kleinfeld made the analogy that "we live in a world that looks a lot like ________."
A) a tossed salad
B) an ice cream sundae
C) a pan of baked lasagna
D) a bowl of clumpy oatmeal

a bowl of clumpy oatmeal

Approximately when did the electronic community make its debut into society?
A) the 1980s
B) the 1990s
C) in the opening years of the 21st century D) the 1970s

the 1990s

With respect to group dynamics, what is the defining characteristic of a small group?
A) It is composed of no more than three members.
B) The group is stable.
C) All members of the group are intimately involved with one another.
D) All members of the group can interact directly with one another.

all members of the group can interact directly with one another

How groups influence individuals and how individuals affect groups is referred to as ________.
A) the Hawthorne Effect
B) small group phenomenon
C) social solidarity
D) group dynamics

group dynamics

According to Georg Simmel, which of the following groups is the most unstable?
A) secondary group
B) triad
C) primary group
D) dyad


In any group of three members, two of the three may have a tendency to alienate the third member and dominate the decision making for the group the trio represents. When this occurs, what term
best applies to the two unified members?
A) a coalition
B) an oligarchy
C) an aggregate
D) an aristocracy

a coalition

How does the structure and function of groups change as they grow in size?
A) Group members feel more strongly bonded to each other.
B) Group members become more active in the decision-making process.
C) Members tend to form more informal relationships.
D) Groups tend to develop a more formal social structure.

groups tend to develop a more formal social structure

In which group would diffusion of responsibility be the greatest concern?
A) the graduating class of a large university
B) a basketball team
C) a football team
D) a married couple

the graduating class of a large university

In which group would there be the greatest number of relationships?
A) a traditional marriage
B) a panel of three
C) the starting nine on a baseball team
D) the starting five on a basketball team

the starting nine on a baseball team

A phenomenon of group dynamics that results in a decrease in one's willingness to help others as the size of the group increases is referred to as ________.
A) diffusion of responsibility
B) Klinefelter's syndrome
C) small group phenomenon
D) the Hawthorne Effect

diffusion of responsibility

A leader of a group whose responsibility would be to keep the group moving towards its goal is classified as a(n) ________ leader.
A) expressive
B) democratic
C) instrumental
D) authoritarian


A(n) ________ leadership style has the tendency to encourage either aggressive or apathetic behavior among group members with aggressive members growing increasingly hostile towards their leader.
A) authoritarian
B) expressive
C) laissez-faire
D) democratic


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