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Ulysses S. Grant

was the 18th President of the United States (1869-1877) following his dominant role in the second half of the Civil War.

Horatio Seymour

Democrat who lost to Ulysses S. Grant in the election of 1868

Jim Fisk

Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S. gold market nearly succeeded in 1869

Jay Gould

United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)

Thomas Nast

Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

Horace Greeley

An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.

Jay Cooke

A New York financier who was interested in the OSN Railroads. When he acquired the charter of the North Pacific, he persuaded Congress to enlarge the land grants 60 miles on each side of the railroad, and he allowed timber companies to sell of these lands.His bankruptcy caused a national depression.

Roscoe Conkling

a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.

James G. Blaine

Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)

Rutherford B. Hayes

19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history

Samuel Tilden

Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low

James A. Garfield

the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.

Chester A. Arthur

Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.

Winfield S. Hancock

in the presidential election of 1880, the Democrats nominated this Civil War general who was wounded at Gettysburg

Charles J. Guiteau

In 1881 Charles J. Guiteau shot President Grafield in the back in a Washington railroad station. Guiteau allegedly committed this crime so that Arthur, a stalwart, would become President. Guiteau's attorneys used a plea of insanity, but failed and Guiteau was hung for murder. After this event politics began to get cleaned up with things like the Pendelton Act.

Grover Cleveland

was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars

Thomas Reed

Known as the Czar; intimidating Speaker of the House which oversaw the first billion dollar Congress beginning in 1888

William Mckinley

was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his death. McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish-American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry, and maintained the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of inflationary proposals.

James B. Weaver

He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.

Tom Watson

elected to the U.S congress, became known as a champion of Georgia's farmers, and he sponsored and pushed through a law providing for RFD-rural free delivery, A leader of the Populist Party in the South.

Adlai E. Stevenson

The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower.

William Jennings Bryan

Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader

J.P. Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"

soft/cheap money

paper money which is not connected to a treasury or gold supply, favored by debtors so their debts could be payed off for lose, when issued caused depreciation

hard/sound money

Paper money backed by gold; extremely important during late 1860's and early 1870's (Panic of 1873). "hard-money" (creditors) people wanted disappearance of greenbacks

contraction

a period of economic decline marked by falling real GDP

resumption

taking up again; recommencement

Gilded Age

1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor

Spoils system

practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs

crop-lien system

Similar to sharecropping — merchants loan food and supplies to farmers so they can farm; farmers have to pay them back with some of their crops. When harvests were bad, farmers got deeper and deeper in debt to merchants.

pork-barrel bills

Bills which would benefit a legislator's local constituency

populism

the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

grandfather clause

A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.

"Ohio Idea"

1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.

the "bloody shirt"

This got the union members to vote for the candidates that they had war with during the civil war instead of voting for the traitors that would be the democrats

Tweed Ring

(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper's Weekly

Credit Mobilier

a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

Whiskey Ring

During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.

Liberal Republicans

Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.

"crime of '73"

u.s. ended minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard

Bland-Allison Act

an 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices.

Greenback Labor party

Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor

Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)

a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War

Stalwart

Part of the republican party; led by Roscoe Conkling; favored machine politics; support patronage

Half-Breed

A half-breed was a republican political machine, headed by James G. Blane c1869. The half-breeds pushed republican ideals and were almost a separate group that existed within the party.

Compromise of 1877

refers to a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election and ended Reconstruction in the South.

Pendleton Act

1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

Mugwumps

Republican political activists who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate, James Blaine.

"redeemers"

Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.

Plessy v. Ferguson

sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

Jim Crow

Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government

Chinese Exclusion Act

Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.

U.S. VS. Wong Kim

US Supreme Court case that upheld the idea that anyone born in the US is a US citizen (Wong Kim appealed the Court because he had been denied re-entry to the US after traveling abroad even though he was legally a citizen)

"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"

this statement attacked the Democratic party, rebellion referred to civil war, romanism referred to catholicism(anti), rum referred to drinking, anti immigrant party

Billion-Dollar Congress

gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

People's Party (Populists)

Started as Farmer's Alliance, farmers came together and became organized, translated into Populists. Wanted to unite farmers of south/west/poor blacks and whites and industrial/factory workers

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

Mckinley Tariff

1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history

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