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Components of the first line of defense include all the following except:
A. the tough cell sheet of the upper epidermis of the skin
B. nasal hairs
C. flushing action of tears and blinking
D. flushing action of urine
E. phagocytic white blood cells

E. phagocytic white blood cells

Nonspecific chemical defenses include:
A. lysozyme
B. lactic acid and electrolytes of sweat
C. skin's acidic pH and fatty acids
D. stomach hydrochloric acid
E. all of the choices are correct

E. all of the choices are correct

The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in certain bacterial cell walls is:
A. lactic acid
B. hydrochloric acid
C. lysozyme
D. histamine
E. bile

C. lysozyme

This body region is protected by fatty acids, acidic pH, lactic acid, and a tough cell barrier with its own normal flora:
A. skin
B. respiratory tract
C. digestive tract
D. urinary tract
E. eyes

A. skin

Plasma:
A. is the liquid portion of blood in which blood cells are suspended
B. is mostly water
C. contains albumin and globulins
D. contains fibrinogen
E. all of the choices are correct

E. all of the choices are correct

The blood cells that function in allergic reactions and inflammation, contain peroxidase and lysozyme, and particularly target parasitic worms and fungi are:
A. basophils
B. eosinophils
C. neutrophils
D. monocytes
E. lymphocytes

B. eosinophils

The most numerous WBC's, that have multilobed nuclei and are very phagocytic are:
A. basophils
B. eosinophils
C. neutrophils
D. monocytes
E. lymphocytes

C. neutrophils

Comprise 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic, and can migrate out into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages:
A. basophils
B. eosinophils
C. neutrophils
D. monocytes
E. Lymphocytes

D. monocytes

All of the following pertain to platelets except:
A. contain hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
B. also called thrombocytes
C. originate from giant multinucleate cells called megakaryocytes
D. function in blood clotting and inflammation
E. they are not whole cells but are pieces of cells

A. contain hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

Hemopoiesis is the:
A. loss of blood due to hemorrhaging
B. production of only red blood cells
C. production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
D. plugging of broken vessels to stop bleeding
E. migration of white blood cells from the blood out to the tissues

C. production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets

Diapedesis is the:
A. loss of blood due to hemorrhaging
B. production of only red blood cells
C. production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
D. plugging of broken vessels to stop bleeding
E. migration of white blood cells from the blood out to the tissues

E. migration of white blood cells from the blood out to the tissues

Plasma cells:
A. function in cell-mediated immunity
B. are derived from T-lymphocytes
C. function in blood clotting
D. produce and secrete antibodies
E. all of the choices are correct

D. produce and secrete antibodies

The reticuloendothelial system:
A. is a support network of connective tissue fibers
B. originates in the cellular basal lamina
C. provides a passageway within and between tissues and organs
D. is heavily populated with macrophages
E. all of the choices are correct

E. all of the choices are correct

Which of the following lymphoid organs and tissues has the immunological function of filtering pathogens from the blood?
A. lymph nodes
B. thymus
C. spleen
D. GALT
E. tonsils

C. spleen

This gland shrinks in size during adulthood, and has hormones that function in maturation of T-lymphocytes:
A. lymph nodes
B. Thymus
C. Spleen
D. GALT
E. Tonsils

B. Thymus

The lymphoid tissues of the intestinal tract are collectively referred to as:
A. lymph nodes
B. thymus
C. splen
D. GALT
E. tonsils

D. GALT

All the following are events of early inflammation except:
A. macrophages appear first and begin phagocytosis
B. chemical mediators and cytokines are released
C. brief vasoconstriction is followed by vasodilation
D. exudate and pus can accumulate
E. capillaries become more permeable resulting in edema

A. macrophages appear first and begin phagocytosis

All of the following pertain to interferon except:
A. protein
B. produced by certain white blood cells and tissue cells
C. includes alpha, beta, and gamma types
D. inhibit viruses, tumors, and cancer gene expression
E. increase capillary permeability and vasodilation

E. increase capillary permeability and vasodilation

The circulating substances that affect the hypothalamus and initiate fever are:
A. complement
B. interferons
C. leukotrines
D. pyrogens
E. lysozymes

D. pyrogens

Which is incorrect about complement?
A. composed of at least 20 blood proteins
B. only appear in the blood during a response to a pathogen
C. act in a cascade reaction
D. involves a classical pathway
E. involves an alternate pathway

B. only appear in the blood during a response to a pathogen

Each of the following are physical barriers to pathogens except:
A. unbroken skin
B. mucous
C. hairs
D. tears
E. T-cells

E. T-cells

22. Each of the following are granulocytes except:
A. neutrophils
B. eosinophils
C. lymphocytes
D. basophils
E. all of the choices are correct

C. lymphocytes

Each of the following is involved in the migration of white blood cells except:
A. chemotaxis
B. diapedesis
C. motility
D. vasodilatation
E. phagocytosis

E. phagocytosis

Each of the following are benefits of fever except:
A. it reduces the ability of temperature sensitive organisms to multiply
B. it increases the availability of iron
C. it increases phagocytosis
D. it increases metabolism
E. it stimulates hematopoiesis

B. it increases the availability of iron

Place the following in order of greatest to least phagocytic activity: neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages
A. neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages
B. neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils
C. eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils
D. macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils
E. macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils

D. macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are called _____ because they have prominent cytoplasmic inclusions that, in a stained blood smear, appear with identifying, characteristic colors.
A. leukocytes
B. granulocytes
C. agranulocytes
D. monocytes
E. none of the choices are correct

B. granulocytes

_____ function in humoral immunity, while _____ function in cell-mediated immunity.
A. B cells, T cells
B. T cells, B cells
C. Monocytes, Basophils
D. Basophils, T cells
E. B cells, neutrophils

A. B cells, T cells

When monocytes migrate from the blood out to the tissues they are transformed by inflammatory mediators to develop into _____.
A. primary phagocytes
B. neutrophils
C. killer T cells
D. cytotoxic T cells
E. macrophages

E. macrophages

The term _____ is given to any foreign substance that stimulates a specific immune system response.
A. antibody
B. allergen
C. antigen
D. foreign body
E. none of the choices are correct

C. antigen

The _____ system of blood proteins act to lyse foreign cells and viruses.
A. humoral immunity
B. cell mediated
C. complement
D. lymphoid
E. none of the choices are correct

C. complement

Genetic differences among species, and within a species, can convey genetic immunity to certain diseases. True False

True

Plasma is also called lymph. True False

False

B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes mature in the thymus gland. True False

False

Complement proteins are produced by the spleen.True False

False

During phagocytosis, intracellular digestion begins as soon as the phagosome is formed. True False

False

a) Dendritic cells

6) Monocytes

b) Plasma cells

7) Antibody production

c) Thymus

2) T cells

d) Pyogenic

1) Pus-forming bacteria

e) Hypothalamus

3) Temperature regulation center

f) Histamine

4) Chemical mediator

g) Interferon

5) synthesis of antiviral proteins

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