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What term is used for red blood cells?

Leukocytes
Hemocytes
Monocytes
Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes

What term is used for white blood cells?

Erythrocytes
Thrombocytes
Leukocytes
Hemocytes

Leukocytes

What type of white blood cell is most prevalent in the circulating blood?

Monocyte
Eosinophil
Neutrophil
Lymphocyte

Neutrophil

What term describes the immature neutrophil?

Bands
Monocyte
Erythrocyte
Reticulocyte

Bands

What type of red blood cell is useful against allergic reactions and defends against parasitic infestations?

Monocyte
Neutrophil
Eosinophil
Lymphocyte

Eosinophil

What term describes and overall abnormal decrease in white blood cell count?

Anemia
Leukopenia
Leukocytosis
Polycythemia

Leukopenia

What is the typical lifespan of a red blood cell?

30 days
60 days
120 days
None of the above

120 days

What substance is responsible for carrying red blood cell oxygen on to the tissues?

Thrombin
Cytokines
Hemoglobin
Prothrombin

Hemoglobin

What term describes ad abnormal decrease in red blood cell count?

Anemia
Cytothemia
Leukopenia
Polycythemia

Anemia

In which of the following conditions would secondary polycythemia NOT be expected?

Pulmonary fibrosis
Pulmonary embolism
Living at high altitudes
Congenital heart disease

Pulmonary embolism

What problem is associated with an abnormal INR value?

Kidney disease
Liver failure
Bleeding
Pulmonary edema

Bleeding

Which of the following symptoms is commonly seen with hyponatremia?

Confusion
Headache
Chest pain
Shortness of breath

Confusion

What is the normal anion gap of potassium is not considered in the equation?

4-10 mEq/L
8-16 mEq/L
12-20 mEq/L
16-24 mEq/L

8-16 mEq/L

Elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels in the blood suggests what type of problem?

Renal failure
Liver failure
Heart disease
Gallbladder disease

Renal failure

The highest levels of AST are seen in acute:

Pulmonary infarction
hepatitis
myocardial infarction
renal failure

hepatitis

A diagnosis of respiratory failure can be made if which of the following are present?

I. PaO2 55mmHg, FIO2 0.21, PB 760mmHg
II. PaCO2 57mmHg, FIO2 0.21, PB 760mmHg
III. P(A-a)O2 45mmHg, FIO2 1.0, PB 760mmHg
IV. PaO2/FIO2 400, PB 750mmHg

I and II

Hypoxemia can be caused by which of the following?

I. diffusion impairment
II. alveolar hypoventilation
III. V/Q mismatch
IV. intrapulmonary shunting

I, II, III, and IV (ALL)

Which of the following clinical signs is most often associated with hypoxemia due to shunt?

diffuse wheezing
"white" chest radiograph
stridor
loud P2

white" chest radiograph

What is the most common cause of low mixed venous oxygen?

liver disease
cardiac disease
neuromuscular disease
vascular disease

cardiac disease

What is the optimal treatment of intrapulmonary shunt?

increase the FIO2
decrease the FIO2
surgery
alveolar recruitment

alveolar recruitment

Which of the following are associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure due to decreased ventilatory drive?

I. brainstem lesions
II. encephalitis
III. hypothyroidism
IV. asthma

I, II, and III

All of the following are associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure due to increase work of breathing EXCEPT:

asthma
myasthenia gravis
obesity
kyphoscoliosis

myasthenia gravis

Which of the following is the cardinal sign of increased work of breathing>

hyperventilation
retractions
bradycardia
tachypnea

tachypnea

A need of some form of ventilatory support is indicated when an adult's rate of breathing rises above what level?

35/min
30/min
25/min
20/min

35/min

Ventilatory support may be indicated when the VC falls below what level?

45 ml/kg
65 ml/kg
10 ml/kg
30 ml/kg

10 ml/kg

Common bedside measures used to assess the adequacy of lung expansion include all of the following except:

VC
respiratory rate
VT
VD/VT

VD/VT

Which of the following indicate severely impaired oxygenation requiring high FIO2s and positive end-expiratory pressure?

I. PaO2-PaO2 greater that 350mmHg on 100% O2
II.VC less that 10ml/kg
III. PaO2/FIO2 less that 200

I and III

Which of the following measures should be used in assessing the adequacy of a patient's alveolar ventilation?

I. PaO2
II. arterial pH
III. PaCO2

II and III

Which of the following indicators are useful in assessing respiratory muscle strength?

I. maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)
II. forced vital capacity (FVC)
III. dead space-to-tidal volume ration (VD/VT)
IV. Maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP)

I, II, and IV

In intubated patients, what do sources of increased imposed work of breathing include?

I. endotracheal tube
II. ventilator circuit
III. auto-PEEP

I, II, and III

Which of the following modes of ventilatory support would you recommend for a severely hypoxemic patient with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?

continuous positive airway pressure
high VT volume-cycled ventilation
pressure-controlled ventilation
bilevel pressure support by mask

pressure-controlled ventilation

What are some causes of dynamic hyperinflation?

I. increased expiratory time
II. increased airway resistance
III. decreased expiratory flow rate

II and III

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