What term is used for red blood cells?
What term is used for white blood cells?
What type of white blood cell is most prevalent in the circulating blood?
What term describes the immature neutrophil?
What type of red blood cell is useful against allergic reactions and defends against parasitic infestations?
What term describes and overall abnormal decrease in white blood cell count?
What is the typical lifespan of a red blood cell?
None of the above
What substance is responsible for carrying red blood cell oxygen on to the tissues?
What term describes ad abnormal decrease in red blood cell count?
In which of the following conditions would secondary polycythemia NOT be expected?
Living at high altitudes
Congenital heart disease
What problem is associated with an abnormal INR value?
Which of the following symptoms is commonly seen with hyponatremia?
Shortness of breath
What is the normal anion gap of potassium is not considered in the equation?
Elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels in the blood suggests what type of problem?
The highest levels of AST are seen in acute:
A diagnosis of respiratory failure can be made if which of the following are present?
I. PaO2 55mmHg, FIO2 0.21, PB 760mmHg
II. PaCO2 57mmHg, FIO2 0.21, PB 760mmHg
III. P(A-a)O2 45mmHg, FIO2 1.0, PB 760mmHg
IV. PaO2/FIO2 400, PB 750mmHg
I and II
Hypoxemia can be caused by which of the following?
I. diffusion impairment
II. alveolar hypoventilation
III. V/Q mismatch
IV. intrapulmonary shunting
I, II, III, and IV (ALL)
Which of the following clinical signs is most often associated with hypoxemia due to shunt?
"white" chest radiograph
white" chest radiograph
What is the most common cause of low mixed venous oxygen?
What is the optimal treatment of intrapulmonary shunt?
increase the FIO2
decrease the FIO2
Which of the following are associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure due to decreased ventilatory drive?
I. brainstem lesions
I, II, and III
All of the following are associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure due to increase work of breathing EXCEPT:
Which of the following is the cardinal sign of increased work of breathing>
A need of some form of ventilatory support is indicated when an adult's rate of breathing rises above what level?
Ventilatory support may be indicated when the VC falls below what level?
Common bedside measures used to assess the adequacy of lung expansion include all of the following except:
Which of the following indicate severely impaired oxygenation requiring high FIO2s and positive end-expiratory pressure?
I. PaO2-PaO2 greater that 350mmHg on 100% O2
II.VC less that 10ml/kg
III. PaO2/FIO2 less that 200
I and III
Which of the following measures should be used in assessing the adequacy of a patient's alveolar ventilation?
II. arterial pH
II and III
Which of the following indicators are useful in assessing respiratory muscle strength?
I. maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)
II. forced vital capacity (FVC)
III. dead space-to-tidal volume ration (VD/VT)
IV. Maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP)
I, II, and IV
In intubated patients, what do sources of increased imposed work of breathing include?
I. endotracheal tube
II. ventilator circuit
I, II, and III
Which of the following modes of ventilatory support would you recommend for a severely hypoxemic patient with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?
continuous positive airway pressure
high VT volume-cycled ventilation
bilevel pressure support by mask
What are some causes of dynamic hyperinflation?
I. increased expiratory time
II. increased airway resistance
III. decreased expiratory flow rate
II and III