high plateau in the Andes Mountains of Peru and Bolivia-+
cold air masses that affect the northern Caribbean Islands, Mexico and some parts of Central America, that move southward from continental Canada and the United States
What is the name of the major Indigenous language/identity in Brazil?
What is a pollera?
a skirt worn with pride by the Indigenous women of Bolivia
In Bolivia, what was the direcho de pernada, as described by the retired farmhands (the so called pongos)?
the right the plantation owners had to rape the women and girl farmhands
What is the name of the country on this same island as the Dominican Republic
What are two characteristics of Hispanidad?
1) White; 2) of Spanish or Catholic descent
What is the name of the famous dictator of the Dominican Republic, who insilled Hispanidad as a national ideology in that country?
The Spanish colonial system employed in Latin America in which lands were alotted to Spaniards who were responsible for exploiting their wealth and had jurisdiction over native peoples
Spaniards born in Spain who were working in the New World- took highest offices and largest land grants.
large production estates developed by Spanish colonial agriculture to cultivate crops and livestock products for local or domestic markets
Spaniards born in the colonies
mixtires of European and Native American ancestry
a relationship of economic, rather than political, dependance
An 1823 declaration asserting US rights to control activity in the Americas over those of countries outside the region. In the Monroe Doctorine, the US vowed to resist any intervention from outside countries in Latin American affairs
North American Free Trade Agreement
NAFTA- An economic agreement among Canada, the US, and Mexico, signed in 1994.
funds sent home by workers in a foreign region
Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas
A political and economic pact signed by Venezuela, Bolivia, and Cuba in the early 2000s with the focus of excluding the US
Dollars invested in Middle East oil producers during high oil prices in the 1970s
In the 1980s, country economies in Latin America stalled because of high interest rates and debts
governmental policies that focus on government- controlled industry and the protection of domestic products through tariffs, quotas, and red tape.
Caribbean Community Common Market (CARICOM)
Formed in 1973 by 13 former British colonies to provide special entry to US markets
Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR)
Trading group established in 1991 among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay
Free Trade of the Americas (FTAA)
An attempt by the US and several Latin American countries to create the world's largest trading group
foreign ownership and control of industry, such as tourism in many parts of Latin America, where the revenue generated by the industry flows to the foreign owners and foreign employees and largely bypasses local communities and thus "leaks" from the local economy
export- led underdevelopment
the process by which countries export their raw materials while their governments charge taxes on exports to pay for their imports. There is no stimulus to develop manufacturing and so diversify to bring more wealth into it
Mexican government program that encourages foreign- owned factories to be sited in Mexico by not charging import duties on raw materials for assembly
naturally occuring land bridge
the government of Panama's expansion of the Panama Canal in the early 2000s to enable larger ships to pass through the canal
The combination of evaporation from water and transpiration through plants leaves that produces humidity in the atmosphere
a shanty town in a Brazilian city
Low rainfall in an area to the lee of a mountain range, where winds warm and get drier as they descend after flowing across mountains
The climate of a small area such as a valley, but may also include the climate of a single plant.
El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
The full name of the El Nino phenomenon.
Zones of climate, vegetation, and crops, which change with height above sea level
The deposition of rock debris, including in offshore areas, where too much fine debris may kill coral reefs
naturally occuring periods during the winter months when cold dense air remains "trapped" at the surface under warmer air for several days or even weeks. the cold air is usually trapped by mountains or some related physical barrier. Temperature inversions may produce stagnant air, which may complicate pollution problems in urban areas
the phenomenon in which the warm equatorial waters push back the cold Peruvian current off the western coast of tropical South America, producing local fish kills and having wider world climactic effects