When a philosophy is applied to the classroom, it influences all of the following EXCEPT
the funding available to the school from the state.
Which of the following educational philosophies are teacher-centered?
idealism and realism
Which of the following educational philosophies are student-centered?
existentialism and pragmatism
Many politicians and members of the public insist that teachers should be held accountable for the academic success of their students. Those who hold this belief would accept which of the following educational theories?
Cary Snodgrass wrote an indignant letter to the editor of the local newspaper in which she criticized the educational system because a recent poll had shown that the majority of students could not pass a test of basic facts about the geography of the nation. Cary's letter expresses the view of one who believes that schools should use an approach that is based on
The Parent's Council at Shallow Creek Elementary School has organized study groups who are discussing the series of books written by E.D. Hirsch Jr. that have titles, such as, What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. The council members efforts at establishing a back-to-the-basics curriculum at Shallow Creek are consistent with
Teachers who accept the essentialist theory of knowledge would agree that they must aid students in
acquiring a common core of information and skills
The role of an essentialist teacher is
dispenser of knowledge
Classroom behaviorist theory is based on the beliefs of
The concept of positive reinforcement is a central idea of
Behaviorist teachers believe that when they ignore undesirable behavior
the bad behavior will be extinguished
Marianne Merrill is a fourth grade teacher at Silver Creek Elementary School. When her students do well on a test she distributes marbles which they place in personal jars. When she ʺcatches them doing something goodʺ they also receive marbles. After the students have collected enough marbles, they may use them to purchase various small items such as candy or school supplies. Marianne tries to ignore students who disobey or act out because she believes that the lack of rewards will extinguish the undesirable actions. The system used by Marianne is based on
Amy Therrian introduces each series of lessons with a set of educational objectives. One of the objectives was, ʺAll students will determine the specific gravity of an unknown liquid by using a hydrometer and a series of liquids of known specific gravities.ʺ At the end of the unit each student had to demonstrate that he or she had mastered the skill. Amy's teaching strategy is consistent with
Positivist teachers believe that student achievement is best assessed through
objective free-bias test
The teachers in the mathematics department at Westdale High School have decided to adopt a standardized teaching strategy that they feel will best suit the majority of their students. Each unit will begin with clear, precise expectations of what the students should know and be able to do. The teachers will explain the new concept that is to be covered. They will demonstrate how to solve problems using the concept on a Smartboard. Several students will then go to the board and repeat the approach using additional examples. The students will then begin working on their homework problems while the teachers walk around the room checking for understanding and offering assistance. The students will then complete ten to twenty additional homework problems using the concepts discussed in class. This approach to teaching uses a strategy known as
Student-centered educational philosophies agree that
the best learning occurs in an environment where the teacher is an active learner also.
The educational theory that places emphasis on how to think as opposed to what to think is
Back-to-the-basics advocates accuse those who have adopted progressivism of
emphasizing specific disciplines
During his teacher education program, Anwar Raja has come to the conclusion that progressivism is the philosophy with which he most closely identifies. When he begins to teach, Anwar will do all of the following EXCEPT:
urge his students to become involved in projects to correct social injustices.
Teachers who accept the humanist educational philosophy of accept all of the following EXCEPT:
adherence to standards developed by experts.
One day while discussing current events, the students in Marcus Robinsons class indicated a concern about the depletion of the aquifers in the western states. Several of them were quite upset about the ramifications of a decline in freshwater supplies. When they heard about the Sparkle Fresh Water Company building a new pumping station to extract water that can be bottled and sold, they were enraged. As a humanist teacher, Marcus would most likely
ask the students what they think should be done and then support whatever action they choose.
Schools with individualized education are based on
During the first week of the new school year, Emilia Gomez conducted a series of class meetings. She asked the students to think individually of possible rules for the classroom. Then she placed them into groups of four to share their ideas and choose and justify the five rules they thought were the most important. Each group presented its list to the entire class. After a whole-class discussion, the students developed the list of rules to be adopted for the school year. The approach used by Emilia is consistent with
According to the constructivist theory of education
students develop personalized understandings.
constructivist teachers use strategies to encourage all of the following EXCEPT:
mastery of factual information.
Boris Lembovski is a physics teacher at Centennial High School. He asks the students to think about and share with a partner experiences they have had with sports, such as baseball, softball, soccer, hockey, pool, bowling, or football, that involve collisions between objects or people. After demonstrating how an air table works, he asks them to predict what will happen when different types of collisions occur and finally to test their predictions with the equipment set up around the lab. In his lesson, Boris is using strategies based on
en Walls, as the principal of Elmgrove Elementary School, is responsible for assessing the degree of success of the new teachers on staff. Owen accepts the view that most principals hold with regard to the easiest way to determine how well a new teacher is doing. Therefore, he will look to see how
well they are able to organize their classrooms.
You are visiting a school in the week before classes are to begin. Most of the teachers have already set up their rooms for the students who will soon arrive. You look through the open doorway into one room and notice that there are open areas, with small groups of chairs arranged around tables in a number of separate areas. Off to one side there is an area with two computers and in a corner there is a circular rug with a small, but colorful and attractive collection of books. From your observation, you are able to predict that the teacher in that room perceives learners to be
You are planning for your first year as a fourth grade teacher. As you think about the units that you will be teaching, you should include all of the following in your plans EXCEPT:
linking all lessons to the textbook.
Teachers who believe that they should develop students who are divergent thinkers will design tests that look for
Teachers who believe that they should develop students who are convergent thinkers will design tests that look for
a single right answer.
Atsko Kobasigawa wants to encourage her students to be motivated to learn. Since this is her goal she should seek to do all of the following EXCEPT:
institute a creative system of rewards.
A teacher-dominant orientation results in all of the following situations EXCEPT:
student interests drive the curriculum design.
When Clinton and Aylissa began to argue over who should take the class guinea pig home for the holidays, Ms. Nesterenko waited patiently for the issue to be resolved. This incident shows that Ms. Nesterenko is a teacher who holds which of the following views?
Miko has developed the habit of smacking other students on the back of the head when he goes to the pencil sharpener or wastebasket. Dale Shea, his teacher, speaks quietly to him and arranges an after school meeting to investigate possible solutions to Mike's misbehavior. This approach indicates that Dale is a teacher who holds which of the following views?
Teachers who follow William Glaser's Choice Theory will do all of the following EXCEPT:
accept responsibility for studentsʹ misbehavior.
An integral part of Glaser's Choice Theory is to
have students design a plan of their own to correct misbehavior.
The Assertive Discipline plan includes all of the following EXCEPT:
taking time to determine why rules are broken.
Conflict resolution strategies involve
teaching students to recognize and constructively solve problems.
Teachers who have expectations for student behavior in the classroom are more likely to be successful if they
model the behavior themselves.
The gulf between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a school district is often exemplified by all of the following, EXCEPT:
the availability of federal grants for special programs.
One's philosophical and political perspectives determine how one views the roles of schools. In the United States, all of the following are considered viable goals for schools by some individuals EXCEPT:
schools should support finding one's natural place in society.
Those holding liberal democratic and capitalist views have different opinions about the roles of schools. Which of the following statements correctly describes these views?
Democracy calls for a liberal education while capitalism calls for preparation for work.
Saying the Pledge of Allegiance in class is an example of which purpose of school?
Civics and government courses generally focus on encouraging
the structure of the U.S. political system and its heritage.
The most effective way to engage students in the democratic process is to
model civic behavior through a meaningful student government.
The biggest problem with preparing students for a specific trade in a vocational program is
employers would rather have students with strong generic skills.
Low levels of achievement on international standardized tests lead to all of the following reactions in the United States, EXCEPT:
The funding provided for education needs to be increased greatly to improve instruction.
In the 21st century, the greatest challenge facing those involved in vocational education is
preparing students so they can adjust to change and adapt to new possibilities.
Lower scores for students from the United States on international achievement tests like TIMSS and PISA, cause outcries from critics that include all of the following demands, EXCEPT:
an emphasis on preparing students to live in a global economy.
Nelson McKelvie is a fourth grade teacher who wants to promote positive interaction among the diverse students in his class. He knows that one of the most effective ways to do so would be to
form cooperative learning groups that he carefully selects.
To eliminate confusion about the common culture of the United States among students newly arrived from a different background, the school must carefully
align the formal and hidden curricula to reinforce national values and rules.
Transmission of culture is considered to be a role of the school system of any nation. However, there are some portions of society in the United States today who object to transmission of many of the aspects of culture for one reason or another. All of the following are objected to by a segment of the population, EXCEPT:
emphasis on individualism and competition.
Culture can best be described as possessing aspects of all of the following, EXCEPT:
Blerina is a recent immigrant from Albania. Ms. Carstairs has been asking her some questions about her family. The information file she has received indicates that Blerina has a sister and so Ms. Carstairs is surprised when Blerina shakes her head from side to side in answer to the question, Do you have any sisters or brothers? Later Ms. Carstairs discovers that side-to-side head shaking in Albania means, Yes, while up and-down head shaking means, No - exactly the opposite of what she understands them to mean. This type of confusion is a result of a difference in
cultural nonverbal cues
Pedro Gomez is a recent immigrant from Mexico. He is taking driver training from Mr. Jones. As Pedro heads west on the interstate, Mr. Jones says, Be careful as you go around the next bend because there is construction and traffic may begin backing up. Pedro, taking Mr. Jones at his word begins to panic fearing that he will see cars reversing towards him. This type of confusion is a result of a difference in
cultural verbal cues.
A teacher may do all of the following to help prevent miscommunications based on cultural cues EXCEPT:
insist that students stop using their own cultural cues.
Cajun culture includes the use of French language and phrases that have continued to be spoken by the original people who moved as Acadians from Nova Scotia to Louisiana after the fall of New France. Because of the nature of culture and how it is maintained and transmitted, which of the following best describes modern Cajun culture and its relationship to culture in France and Canada?
Cajun and Acadian cultures in Canada are interchangeable because of origins but differ from that of France.
The Common Culture of the United States is derived from that of
white, middle-class Protestants from Western Europe.
The Common Culture has been defined historically by
those in power by the area
The Civil Rights struggles of the 1960s and 1970s are examples that illustrate that in the United States
that the majority has the right to set the pattern for everyone in society
Helga Brenders knows that she can learn more about the cultural identities of her students in all of the following ways, EXCEPT
volunteering to sponsor the chess team at the school.
A school with a pluralistic approach will
value cultural differences and integrate them into the curriculum
The Pleasant Valley School District is planning to build a third high school. Many of the students from the two existing schools will have to move to the new school. The district has established a committee to help the student body of the new Stony Creek High School to develop a sense of belonging and community. They know that all of the following are signs and emblems that will build a school culture, EXCEPT:
Which of the following is an example of a school tradition?
high school marching band
You are acting as a consultant to a group of parents who wish to set up a charter school for their children. Since some of them are unsure of the requirements for such a school, you have been asked to present an introductory session. You should include all the following as requirements, EXCEPT:
the group must agree to all state and district regulations
Which of the following would object the most strongly to a proposal to institute a voucher system that would include access to private and religious schools?
the state Department of Education
Over the past thirty years, the net migration of families and individuals has involved movement
from the Northeast and Midwest to the South and West.
Katrina is a student at a Montessori School. She began school at age two and a half and will soon be turning seven. Which of the following statements describes her education so far?
She has had the same teacher during the whole time she has been there.
The overall poverty rate is highest among those living in
Increasing numbers of urban and suburban dwellers are re-establishing themselves in rural communities from which they commute to employment in cities. Which of the following tends to be true about the values of the newcomers when compared to the values of the natives of the rural communities?
they have different expectations of schools
A higher level of achievement on tests and a higher percentage of students attending college is found in
Those living in large urban areas have all of the following advantages, EXCEPT:
a wide range of affordable housing.
One-half of the population of the world lives in
The schools throughout a city, such as New York City, can best be described as
looking different and serving students differently.
Parents who are in the upper middle class more frequently tend to do all of the following, EXCEPT:
volunteer to help in school breakfast programs.
The mayors of cities, such as Washington D.C. and New York City, have taken control of the management of the public school systems with the stated aim of
reforming schools and improving student learning.
As a result of the criticisms of those associated with educational reform, teachers who have been identified as ineffective are being replaced by energetic, intelligent, and enthusiastic teachers with backgrounds that have emphasized
academic content in one or more subject areas.
Research on effective schools shows that they possess all of the following characteristics, EXCEPT:
they have strong ties to teacher unions.
To be awarded "Blue Ribbon" status by the federal government as a high performing school, students in the school must operate at which percentile on the state tests?
The factor with the greatest impact on the publicity surrounding the performance gaps among different groups in society is:
criticism by education reformers
Income, occupation, and educational attainment are criteria that constitute
What characteristic of society places individuals at different levels of the social structure based upon wealth, income, occupation, and education?
How are characteristics such as levels and rank within the social class structure classified?
The class that represents 46 percent of the employed population is the
Families whose income ranges from $45,000 to $88,000 make up the
The term Asian American refers to the classification of a population known as
The identification of membership in a group based on the national origin (that is, a specific country or area of the world) of one's ancestors, a shared culture, and a sense of common destiny is called
Ethnic group members share all of the following EXCEPT:
a common religion
Viktor and Olga, who recently immigrated to the United States, want their children to remain connected to their ethnic origins. They can do so by all of the following EXCEPT:
helping other new arrivals to become assimilated.
What is the officially recognized sign language with a complex grammar and a well -regulated syntax?
American Sign Language
Tyrell would like to work in the preparation of media for educational uses. If he plans to be a narrator, he would be wise to develop skills in
At what age have children learned their gender and begun to exhibit stereotypical behavior?
five to six years old
All of the following are unaffected by a person's gender EXCEPT:
income from employment
Which statement best reflects the economic status of women in the United States?
They generally do not enjoy equal job status and earn considerably less than men for comparable jobs.
When Kaitlyn is interviewed for a teaching position in a working-class school she is asked why many of the boys in the school have developed patterns of resistance to school and its authority figures. Her best answer would be:
They perceive that schooling is feminine, emphasizing mental rather than manual work.
Title IX programs are intended to
prevent discrimination so that females and males have equal educational opportunities.
The Rocky Hill School District has been accused of not complying with the provisions of Title IX with respect to their sports programs. The lawyer for the school district has informed the school board members of the three points, upheld by courts in the past, that they must apply. The test includes all of the following points EXCEPT:
the school district must provide opportunities for all females and males to participate in the same sports.
Sexual orientation in a child is established by
Some educators make a determination as to whether or not a child with special needs will be able to enter the diploma-bound program by the end of kindergarten. Such a decision can
lead to lowered academic expectations for those students who can perform at high levels when provided with appropriate accommodations for their disability.
Sally Houston has reduced mobility because she is confined to a wheel chair. She has a college degree and is certified as a laboratory technologist. She has applied for many positions and the personnel directors who have interviewed her are extremely impressed with her knowledge and skills. However, she has been told by most of them, ʺWe would like to hire you but we are unable to because...ʺ
of a lack of accommodations in the workplace.
Inclusion is most effective when all of the following are part of the plan EXCEPT:
the classroom teacher also acts as a specialist dealing with the exceptionality.
The architects for Glendale Middle School are meeting with the administration of the school district to provide for accommodations for the school's inclusion plan. They will need to consider all of the following EXCEPT:
an inviting room exclusively for students with exceptionalities.
Religious beliefs generally guide students and their families in all of the following areas, EXCEPT:
guidance on moral and ethical issues.
The most common religion in the United States is
The foundations of multicultural education include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Bunmi Sodade knows that she will promote multiculturalism among her students if she
integrates principles of diversity, social justice, and equality throughout her curriculum.
Rheena is preparing a presentation for a unit on multiculturalism for one of the classes in her teacher education program. Which of the following strategies has been the most effective in bringing the cultures of diverse students into the classroom?
use examples from their cultures and experiences as subjects are taught
Jeremy Chase wishes to demonstrate to the diverse students in his class that he has a respect for their cultural backgrounds. He has contacted Vern Mahadeo, the school district's Multicultural Consultant. Since he ha s spent a great deal of time studying how to work with diverse students, Vern would recommend all of the following EXCEPT:
Teachers should strive to find the best scientifically-proven teaching strategy and use it for all their students.
If you were part of a committee to help develop an awareness of other cultural groups at a teacher's college in an area that was very homogeneous, you would be likely to recommend all of the following approaches EXCEPT:
encourage collaboration with other schools with similar populations.
Teachers who believe that all students can learn, who place students at the center of teaching, and who try to build on their cultural backgrounds and experiences, will develop meaningful learning experiences when they engage in
culturally relevant teaching.
Which of the following is an important consideration for teachers who still face fairly homogeneous populations?
They need to work harder to bring different perspectives to presentations and discussions.
The Supreme Court case that declared separate-but-equal education for black and white students illegal was
Brown v. Board of Education
Multiculturalists believe that
English-only policies will encourage assimilation
Tamika would like to provide an environment that would permit all student participants to have voice. She realizes that such a move could be risky and she must be prepared for all of the following possibilities EXCEPT:
The students might feel that they have nothing to contribute and will remain silent.
Which of the following is particularly important in affirming student voices
respect for differences that exist in the classroom
Which of the following is an example of a social injustice?
A high school in a low-income area does not have the funds to offer an advanced placement class.
Most attempts to provide equal educational opportunities have provided which of the following?
compensatory programs to help overcome gaps
Which of the following is a policy that would ensure that all students, regardless of cultural background and family circumstances, would be provided access to a similar educational opportunities?
equal educational opportunity
Manuel Ortega wants to help his students to achieve at the highest levels possible. He knows that to be successful, he will have to employ all of the following strategies EXCEPT:
Students not achieving well should be moved to other classes where they will have better opportunities.
David Orchinsky believes that teaching for social justice is an integral part of his job. He knows that to reach his goal he must address all of the following in his program, EXCEPT:
assist the shopkeepers in the neighbourhood to advertise their merchandise.