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Study guide on Chapters 8-10

In comparison to physical development in infancy:

growth during the preschool years is slower

During the preschool years:

boys and girls show about the same growth patterns

Which of the following is true about the corpus callosum?

it is largely myelinated by the age of 8

Research suggests that in right-handed individuals:

the left hemisphere is more involved in logical analysis and problem solving

What is meant by "brain plasticity?"

the brain can sometimes compensate for injuries

Which of the following is true about brain plasticity?

all of these are true

Younger preschoolers:

are more likely to engage in physical play than older preschoolers

Rough and tumble play is found:

cross-culturally in same and mixed sex groups

Which of the following is true about rough-and-tumble play?

it is influenced by both culture and environment

By what age do children begin drawing basic shapes?

3 years

Genetically:

handedness of the child is influenced by the handedness of the parents

Handedness appears to be:

influenced by genetics

Jeremy stutters when he speaks. What might we guess about his handedness?

he is likely to be left-handed

In terms of handedness:

left-handedness is associated with artistic creativity and success in athletics

Jason feeds his infant son foods that are high in salt and sugar. What is likely to happen to his infant's preferences for these tastes?

the infant's preference for sweet and salty foods will increase

A father has noticed a decrease in the appetite of his 2-year-old son. As a child development expert, you tell the father that he should:

not worry, as decreased appetite at this age is normal

_____ is connected with half of the deaths of children under the age of 5.

Oral rehydration therapy

What percentage of children in the United States suffers from a chronic illness?

about 33%

Which of the following is not one of the leading causes of Childhood death?

mumps

Most preschoolers sleep:

10 hours at night and take one nap per day

Transitional objects, such as stuffed animals and other favorite toys:

may assist children in gaining greater independence from parents

Sleepwalking is related to:

immaturity of the nervous system

Bedwetting tends to occur:

during the deepest stage of sleep

In countries outside the United States:

the same gender patterns appear as in the U.S.

What methods are recommended to help with bedwetting?

use a sandwhich bed

Harsh punishment in response to encopresis:

generally can make the problem worse

Violent pretend play is associated with:

all of these

Operations are:

all of these

Caitlin thinks that all people love dolls because she loves dolls. This is an example of:

egocentrism

What is centration?

focusing only on one aspect of a problem

A preoperational child would assume:

that objects that are out of sight have ceased to exist

Preoperational children's failure to show conservation occurs because of a characteristic known as:

irreversibility

Recent research suggests that:

children can take the perspective of others at an earlier age than Piaget believed

Donaldson (1979) indicates that children's difficulty with the three-mountain task may be due to more to _____ than to _____.

the demands of the task; egocentrism

More recent studies indicate that children's understanding of causality is more sophisticated than Piaget believed. However. this depends upon:

how the tasks are presented

What is scaffolding?

temporary support provided to a child while learning to perform a task

Scaffolding is a term associated with:

an achievement test sometimes given to young children

Clarke-Stewart and Beck (1999) found that the quality of stories retold by children was related to:

the scaffolding strategies used by their mother

The HOME is a better predictor of young children's later IQ scores than:

all of these

Preschools that offer "academic programs" focus on:

teachers structuring children's learning experiences

Cameron attends a preschool in which he learns through play. He decides what activities he would like to do and he sets the pace for his own learning. This type of preschool setting is called:

child centered

The Children's Television Act:

requires that networks devote a certain number of hours per week to educational programming

The effects of regular viewing of Sesame Street:

seem to apply across race, gender, and living condition

Which represents the appearance-reality distinction?

understanding the difference between a toy train and an actual train

Which of the following is a mental representation?

understanding that an eraser can look like a cookie

Do newborns have memory skills?

yes, they can recognize their mother's face and voice

Which of the following would three-year-old Tyler remember best?

what he did while building a house out of blocks

In four-year-old children, which assists memory more?

maternal assistance and internal motivation, depending on the memory task

Children have better memory for events when their parents:

provide reminders of the event

Which of the following represents overregularization?

"Daddy goed"

Which of the following sentences would be most difficult for a two-year-old to understand?

"The food is eaten by the dog."

Which of the following is true about toddler play?

they may imitate each other, but do not interact in a complex way

Fantasy play often involves:

adopting adult roles

Warm parents are:

less likely to use physical punishment

Which of the following children would be most likely to develop in socially and emotionally healthy ways?

a child raised by warm parents

Are there genetic factors that are related to parenting?

research suggests there may be

Providing children with knowledge that enables them to generate desirable behavior patterns is called :

an inductive method

Power-assertive parents are most likely to be _____.

authoritarian

A self-reliant child is most likely to have been raised by:

authoritative parents

The research of Diana Baumrind (1991) and others shows that:

parenting styles and characteristics of children may interact to establish the parent-child relationship

Which of the following is true about siblings?

there are both positive and negative aspects to sibling relationships

Which of the following represents regression on the part of a child when a sibling is born?

an older child having toilet accidents, even after having been potty trained

Why might later-born children be more popular with their peers?

they learn social skills by dealing with their older siblings

Why might parents "relax" in their expectations of later-born children?

all of these are possible reasons

_____ African American mothers report that father figures are involved with their preschoolers.

One third to one half of

Does play serve a purpose?

yes, it serves many purposes

Bridgette and Ben have created a game in which they race their bicycles through an obstacle course. According to Piaget, this type of play is defined as:

formal games

Solitary play and onlooker play can both be categorized as:

all of these

two children are wrestling outside. Given the research on play, what might you guess about these children?

they are both boys

A group of eight five-year-olds are playing together. Given the research on play, what might you guess about the gender mix of this group of children?

they are likely to be boys

The tendency to prefer to play with peers of the same gender:

is seen across a wide variety of cultures

If a child is sensitive to the feelings of others, this is called:

empathy

Aggression in preschoolers is:

usually possession-oriented

Researchers who propose that individuals are aggressive because there is competition for resources such as food adhere to the _____ theory of aggression.

evolutionary

Children are more apt to imitate what their parents do, _____.

listen to what their parents say

Criticizing, threatening and punishing a "difficult" child is associated with:

all of the above

William watches a great deal of televised violence. How might this affect his likelihood of helping a victim when violence occurs?

he might be less likely to take action

Which of the following contributes to levels of aggression in children?

all of the above

How might a four-year-old evaluate her self-esteem?

according to cognitive competence, physical competence, and social acceptance

A five-year-old child is striving on his own to learn a new skill. According to Erik Erikson, this child is probably in the:

initiative v. guilt stage

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