Chapters 3, 4, and 5

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Most seventeenth-century English migrants to the North American colonies were

laborers

In the seventeenth century, the great majority of English immigrants who came to the Chesapeake region were

indentured servants

All of the following were characteristics of the English indenture system EXCEPT

most indentured servants received land upon completion of their contracts

By 1700, English colonial landowners began to rely more heavily on African slavery because

of a declining birthrate in England

Regarding colonial life expectancy during the seventeenth century

life expectancy in New England was unusually high

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, medical practitioners

had little or no knowledge of sterilization

The seventeenth-century medical practice of deliberately bleeding a person was based on

the belief that a person needed to maintain a balance of different bodily fluids

In the seventeenth century, white women in colonial Chesapeake

averaged one pregnancy for every two years of marriage

Compared to women in colonial Chesapeake, New England women

were more likely to have their family remain intact

In colonial New England Puritan communities, women

were expected to be major contributors to the family

In colonial New England Puritan communities, the family was

highly valued

The term "middle passage" refers to the movement of enslaved Africans

from Africa to the New World

The estimated total number of Africans forcibly brought to all of the Americas as slaves is

eleven million

During the seventeenth century, the Royal African Company of England

deliberately restricted the supply of slaves to the North American colonies

Which statement regarding slavery in English North America in 1700 is FALSE?

the demand for slaves led to a steady rise in the prices paid for them

In English North American colonies, the application of slave codes was based on race and

nothing more

In comparing the colonial societies of Spanish America and English America, people of mixed races

had a higher status than pure Africans in Spanish America

Which statement about colonial America is true?

the diversity of the American population was its most enduring and distinctive feature

The largest contingent of immigrants during the colonial period were the

Scotch-Irish

The seventeenth-century tobacco economy of the Chesapeake region

went through numerous boom-and-bust cycles

Rice production in colonial America

was very difficult and unhealthy work

Which statement about the economy of the northern colonies is true?

Agriculture was more diverse than in the southern colonies

The first significant metals industry in the colonies was developed for

iron

Industrialization in colonial America was hampered by

English parliamentary regulations, a small domestic market, an inadequate labor supply, and an inadequate transportation network

In the seventeenth century, most colonial families

did not own a plow

Commerce in colonial America relied in large part on

barter

In the "triangular trade," the North American colonies primarily contributed

sugar

By the mid-eighteenth century, a distinct colonial merchant class came into existence because of

illegal colonial trade in markets outside of the British Empire

During the eighteenth century, rising consumerism in the American colonies was encouraged by

both increasing class distinction within a society and the association of material possessions with personal virtue and refinement

Seventeenth-century southern plantations

tended to be rough and relatively small

The first plantations in colonial North America emerged in the tobacco-growing areas of

Virginia and Maryland

The percentage of blacks living on a plantation of at least ten slaves was approximately

three-fourths (75%)

Which statement regarding the lives of slaves in colonial North America is true?

Slave religion was a blend of Christianity and African folk tradition

The Stono Rebellion

saw slaves in South Carolina attempt to escape from the colony

The most common form of resistance by enslaved Africans to their condition was

subtle defiance or evasion of their masters

Which of the following statements about slave work is FALSE?

Colonial slave codes forbade teaching slaves skilled trades and crafts

In Puritan New England, participation in town meetings was limited to

adult males who were church members

"Primogeniture" refers to the

passing of property to the firstborn son

Over time, tensions in Puritan New England communities developed as a result of

both population growth and the commercialization of society

In the outbreaks of witchcraft hysteria that marked the New England colonial life, those accused were most commonly

women of low social position

The story of the witchcraft trials in Salem

saw the original accusers recant their charges

By the 1770s, the two largest port cities in colonial North America were

Philadelphia and New York

Class divisions in colonial North American cities were

more real and visible than in rural places

In the 1760s, the Revolutionary crisis in English North America began in cities because

cities were the centers of intellectual information

In the eighteenth century, religious toleration in the American colonies

flourished due to the diversity of practices brought by settlers, was unmatched in any European nation, was enhanced because so single religious code could be imposed on any large area, and grew despite laws establishing the Church of England as the official colonial religion

The Church of England was the official faith in

Virginia

In the English colonies, Jews

could not vote or hold office

"Jeremiads" refer to

sermons

In the mid-1600s, New England Puritans began preaching against the decline of

piety

The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s

had particular appeal with women and young men

George Whitfield is associated with the

Great Awakening

A leading figure of the Great Awakening, Jonathan Edwards preached

highly orthodox Puritan ideas

Eighteenth-century Enlightenment thought

suggested that people had considerable control over their own lives

All of the following Americans made important contributions to Enlightenment thought EXCEPT

John Locke

After the Bible, the first widely circulated publications in colonial America were

almanacs

The wide availability of reading material in colonial America was the result of

the invention of the printing press in the early 1700s

The Church of England was established as the official religion of all of the following colonies EXCEPT

Massachusetts

Which statement regarding colonial higher education is true?

Most colleges were founded by religious grouos

The first American college was

Harvard

The verdict of the 1735 libel trial of New York publisher John Peter Zenger

increased freedom of the press in the colonies

In the years after the Glorious Revolution, political power in England increasingly shifted toward

Parliament

During the first half of the eighteenth century, England's administration of the colonies

was loose, decentralized, and inefficient

During the first half of the eighteenth century, royal officials in America

contributed to England's overall lax control of the colonies

By the 1750s, American colonial assemblies

exercised a significant degree of authority to levy taxes

The proposed Albany Plan of 1754

revealed the difficulties colonies had in cooperating with each other

As a result of the Seven Years' War, in North America, England

confirmed its commercial supremacy and increased political control of the settled regions

The major participants in the Seven Years' War, in North America, were

the Iroquois, the English, and the French

During the eighteenth century, in North America, the French differed from the English in Indian relations in that the French

were more tolerant of Indian cultures

During the eighteenth century, in North America, the most powerful native group was the

Iroquois

Through the first half of the eighteenth century, the Iroquois Confederacy formed agreements and traded with

both France and England at the same time

The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713

transferred territory from the French to the English in North America

King George's War

failed to resolve European conflicts in North America

In the aftermath of King George's War

relations between the English, French, and Iroquois deteriorated

What future American revolutionary figure surrendered to French forces in 1754 at Fort Necessity in the Ohio Valley?

George Washington

The first clash of the French and Indian War took place near what is now

Pittsburgh

During the first stage (1754-1756) of the French and Indian War

the Iroquois were allied with the English but remained largely passive

The French and Indian War was fought in

India, the West Indies, the North American interior, and Europe

During the French and Indian War, British leader William Pitt

gradually loosened his tight control over the colonists

The beginning of the end of the American phase of the French and Indian War was marked by the French defeat at

Quebec

According to the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1763,

France ceded Canada and all of its claims to land east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans, to Great Britain

Throughout the French and Indian War, American colonists

sold and traded food and other goods with the French

Following the conclusion of the French and Indian War

many colonists resented England's interference in their local affairs

For Indians in North America, British victory in the French and Indian War

had disastrous effects on their future

The French and Indian War in North America

suggested that increasing England's control over the colonies would not be easy

When George III assumed the throne of England, he

was painfully immature

When he became British Prime Minister, George Grenville

believed the American colonists had been indulged for far too long

The Proclamation of 1763

was supported by many Indian tribes

In the 1760s, the Grenville ministry increased its authority in the colonies by

stationing regular British troops permanently in America

The Sugar Act of 1764 was designed to

damage the market for sugar grown in the colonies, eliminate the illegal sugar trade between the colonies, the French, and the West Indies, establish new vice admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers, and lower the colonial duty on molasses

The Stamp Act of 1765

required colonists to pay taxes on most printed documents

The Paxton Boys and the Regulators both

demanded tax relief

Legislation passed by the Grenville ministry in 1764-1765 adversely affected American

New England merchants, southern planters, small farmers, and urban workers

Many colonists believed the legislation passed by the Grenville ministry in 1764-1765

meant the British were trying to take away their tradition of self-government

The Stamp Act of 1765

helped to unite the colonies in opposition to the English government

Who among the following took the lead in protesting the Stamp Act?

Patrick Henry

The "Virginia Resolves" stated that

anyone who supported the right of Parliament to tax was an enemy of the colony

British official Thomas Hutchinson

had his home ransacked by anti-Stamp Act demonstrators

In 1766, in response to colonial protests against the Stamp Act, the British government

rescinded the Stamp Act

The Declaratory Act of 1766

was a sweeping assertion of Parliament's authority over the colonies

The Mutiny (or Quartering) Act of 1765

was regarded by objecting colonists as a form of taxation without consent

The Townshend Duties of 1767

were taxes on what are called external transactions

Colonial protests against the Townshend Duties resulted in

many colonists joining in non-importation agreements

In 1770, the Townshend Duties were ended by

Lord North

The Boston Massacre

was transformed by some colonists into a symbol of British oppression

The leading colonial figure in the Boston Massacre was

Samuel Adams

In the 1760s, "country Whigs" were English colonists who

considered the British government to be corrupt and oppressive

English and American supporters of the English constitution felt it correctly divided power between

the monarchy, the aristocracy, and representative assemblies

In the eighteenth century, the English constitution was

an unwritten document, difficult to change, unpopular in both England and America, and believed to be holding back colonial expression

Under the English constitution during the eighteenth century,

large areas of England had no direct political representation

In the eighteenth century, under the English government's theory of representation

the American colonies were represented in Parliament

Taverns were important in the growth of revolutionary sentiment because

they became central meeting places to discuss ideas about resistance

The Tea Act of 1773

followed a few years of relative calm between England and the American colonies, lowered the price of tea for American colonists, was intended to benefit a private British company, and provided no new tax on tea

The colonial boycott of tea in 1773

was led by women who were the primary consumers of tea

The Boston Tea Party of December 1773

both triggered acts of resistance in other colonial cities and took place after Bostonian failed to turn away ships laden with tea

Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by

reducing the powers of self-government in Massachusetts

The Quebec Act

granted political rights to Roman Catholics

Which of the following statements regarding the Coercive Acts is true?

Massachusetts became a martyr in the cause of resistance

In 1774, the First Continental Congress

called for the repeal of all oppressive legislation passed since 1763

In 1775, the Conciliatory Propositions

was an appeal by the British government to colonial moderates

At the time of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, General Thomas Gage, the commander of the British garrison in Boston

considered his army too small to act without reinforcements

The events of Lexington and Concord

occurred before there was a formal American declaration of independence

In 1775, as conflicts with England intensified, American colonists

were deeply divided about what they were fighting for

Published in January 1776, Common Sense was written by

Thomas Paine

The author of Common Sense

considered the English constitution to be the greatest problem facing the colonists

The Declaration of Independence

borrowed heavily from previously published colonial documents

Financing the Revolution was difficult for the American side because

hard currency was scarce

The war effort by American colonists would be financed primarily by

borrowing form abroad

As commander of the Continental Army, George Washington

was admired, respected, and trusted by nearly all Patriots

At the start of the Revolution, American advantages over the British included a

greater commitment to the war

Which of the following took place during the first phase (1775-76) of the Revolutionary War?

British troops evacuated Boston

In the Battle of Bunker Hill,

the British sugared heavy casualties

During the second phase (1776-78) of the American Revolution, British military efforts were hampered by

a series of tactical blunders and misfortunes

When George Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night, 1776, he was intent on surprising

Hessians

Among the following, who was NOT a British general during the American Revolution?

Horatio Gates

The British military campaigns of 1777 saw

General John Burgoyne suffer a major defeat at Saratoga

During the American Revolution, the Iroquois Confederacy officially

declared its neutrality

In early 1778, France

worried that the US would quit the war against the British

After the Battle of Saratoga, British Prime Minister Lord North responded to the colonies with

an offer to complete colonial home rule within the empire if they would quit the war

Which of the following nations opposed England during the Revolutionary War?

the Netherlands

In the final phase (1778-81) of the American Revolution, the British

badly overestimated the support of American Loyalists

As the fighting in the final phase (1778-81) of the American Revolution carried into communities previously isolated from the war

support for independence greatly increased

Which of the following statements regarding Benedict Arnold is FALSE?

Arnold spent the last years of the Revolution as a prisoner of war

Which of the following was the scene of a substantial British victory in the final phase (1778-81) of the American Revolution?

Charlestown

Which of the following statements regarding General Nathaniel Greene is FALSE?

He led American forces to victory in the battle of Yorktown.

The battle of Yorktown involved

a combined French and American army and navy

The principle Americans who negotiated the peace terms with the British were

Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay

Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783

the United Stated gained formal British recognition of American independence

During the American Revolution, Loyalists

constituted perhaps as many as one-third of the white colonial population

As a result of the American Revolution, the Anglican Church in America was

weakened

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