a reformer who worked hard to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she was appointed superintendent of women nurses for the United States
a white Pennsylvanian who made a valuable contribution to American folk music by capturing the plaintive spirit of true slaves with songs like "Old Folks at Home" and "Oh!Susana!"
James Russell Lowell
an American romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He wrote the the "Biglow Papers" and was associated with the Fireside Poets.
an American Baptist preacher who is credited with the beginning of the Adventism movement (a religion part of the Second Great Awakening that is similar to modern day Conservative Protestants)
an American author, essayist, biographer, and historian of the early 19th century. He is best known for "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and Rip Van Winkle
Oliver Wendell Holmes
a prominant poet, essayist, novelist, and lecturer. He taught anatomy at Harvard Medical School.
an American Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, and advocate for women's rights. She was aroused when she and fellow female delegates were not recognized at the Candon Antislavery Convention of 1840
James Fenimore Cooper
a profilic and popular American writer of the early 19th century who wrote numerous sea-stories and historical novelss known as the the "Leatherstocking Tales"
the first female graduate of a medical college; also was part of the women's rights movement and helped educate women
an American Education reformer and a member of the Massachussetts House of Representatives from 1827-1833. He was elected into the U.S. House in 1848
an American Methodist revivalist and politician in Illinois. He helped start the 2nd Great Awakening.
aka "Schoolmaster of the Republic" and was educated at Yale. He wrote Webster's Dictionary and it was published in 1828
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. She wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" at the Women's Rights Convention of 1842.
an American dietary reformer who was ordained in 1826 as a Presbyterian minister. He is notable for his emphasis on vegrtarianism and the Temperance Movement.
Edgar Allen Poe
a gifted poet who is best known for his short stories (horrors); was an orphan at an early age, who was cursed with ill health, poverty, hunger, debt, and bad luck.
Susan B. Anthony
a militant lecturer for women's rights
Raplh Waldo Emerson
leader of the Transcendentalist movement; also an American lecturer, essayist, and poet
a writer who is best known for "The Scarlet Letter"; had a tragic childhood when his father died on a sea voyage
a wealthy and idealistic Scottish textile manufacturer who was also a member of New Harmony Utopian Society
Henry David Thoreau
a poet (wrote mostly about nature) who advocated for Transcendentalism and civil disobedience
an orphan from New York who went on a sea voyage at 18 and produced "Moby Dick"
Charles G. Finney
the greatest of revival preachers. He was trained as a lawyer, but changed paths to hold massive religious revivals. He encouraged women to pray in public and made in "anxious bench" where repentant sinners could sit in full view of the Congregation
Williem H. McGuffey
an influential person for the education reform. He wrote books that taught lessons on morality, patriotism, and idealism. 122 million copies were sold
the creator of the Mormon religion(Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints). He ran into much opposition and was murdered with his brothers in 1844 by a mob
the woman responsible for attaining respect for women's schools; also established the Troy Female Seminary in New York
a professor at Harvard College for 25 years who broke paths in biology
a writer who authored a famous collection of poems known as "Leaves of Grass". He wrote with much romance, emotion, and truthfulness
John J. Audubon
a painter who made "Bird of America"
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
a professor at Harvard College for many years who taught modern languages
Louis May Alcott
a woman writer who wrote "Little Women" and other books based on her mother and sisters. She got many ideas from her philosophical father Branson Alcott
a competant painter who produced several portraits of George Washington
an advocate for women's rights who was also a successful writer
a writer whose eyes were so defective that he had to write with the aid of a guiding machine. He wrote epic chronicles about the struggle between France and Britian in colonial times for the control of North America
a Mormon who caught and continued to lead the religion after Joseph Smith's death
American Temperance Society
a group established in Boston of 1826 for the reform and abstinence of alcohol
a popular name for members of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing (aka the Millenial Church)
a drastic statute of 1851 that prohibited the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor in the state of Maine
a nontrinitarian Christian religion that believes that God only exists in one person. They also believe that God is a loving father and not a stern creator and that all people will go to Heaven.
Second Great Awakening
a religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States
Hudson River School
a mid 19th century American Art Movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influened by romance
Women's Rights Convention
The Seneca Falls Convention that was held in New York that advocated for women's rights. The Declaration of Sentiments was written here
a group of talented writers including Washington Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant
refers to the region of upstate New York where the Second Great Awakening had swept through the area
Declaration of Sentiments
a list of grievance (based on the Declaration of Independence)written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the Senenca Falls Convention about women's rights
a term associated with a group of new ideas in literature that was a protest against the general state of culture and society
followers of William Miller and the belief in the Second Coming of Christ
a Utopian community in Oneida, New York that strived for perfection. They believed that Christ had already returned in the year 70
members of the Church of Latter Day Saints created by Joseph Smith and led later by Brigham Young
Phineas T. Barnum
an American showman, businessman, and entertainer; founder of the circus
the religion where believers relied on reason rather than revelation and on science rather than Bible