public speaking

161 terms by ejt0004 

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Stage fright

scared at idea of standing before a group to make a speech

• Positive nervousness

a zesty enthusiastic lively feeling with a slight edge to it

seven elements of speech communication process

o speaker o message o channel o listener o feedback o o situationinterference

• ethnocentrism-

the belief that our own group or culture is superior to all other

• ethics

the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs

• Name calling

the use of language to defame, demean or degrade individuals or groups

• Bill of rights

first 10 amendments to the U.S. constitution

• 5 guidelines for ethical speaking

o Make sure your goals are ethically sound o Be fully prepared and informed for each speech o Be honest in what you say o Avoid name calling and abusive language o Put ethical principles into practice

• Plagiarism

to present another persons language or ideas as your own

1. Global Plagiarism

stealing your speech entirely from another single source and passing it off as your own

2. Patchwork plagiarism

when a speaker pilfers from two or three sources

3. Incremental plagiarism

when speaker fails to give credit for particular parts, increments, of the speech that are borrowed from other people • Quotations- whenever you quote someone you must attribute the words to that person • Paraphrases- to restate or summarize an author's ides in ones own words

• Guidelines for ethical listening:

o Be courteous and attentive o Avoid prejudging the speaker o Maintain the free and open expression of ideas

1. Appreciative listening

listening for pleasure or enjoyment, like listening to music, comedy, or entertaining speech

2. Empathic listening

listening to provide emotional support for the speaker, like a psychiatrist or listening to a friend in distress

3. Comprehensive listening

listening to understand the message of a speaker, as when we attend class lecture, or directions to house

4. Critical listening

listening to evaluate a message for purposes if accepting or rejecting it, like sales pitch or campaign speech of political candidate

• 4 causes of poor listening

1. not concentrating • spare brain time- we can process speakers words faster than they talk to we are tempted to interrupt our listening by listening to other things 2. listening to hard 3. jumping to conclusions 4. focusing on delivery and personal appearance (Focusing on the speakers delivery or personal appearance is one of the major sources of interferences in speech communication process and we need to guard against it)

• active listening

giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speakers point of view

• How to become a better listener:

o Take listening seriously o Be an active listen o Resist distractions o Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery o Suspend judgment o Focus your listening • Listen for main points • Listen for evidence • Listen for technique o Develop note taking skills

• Key word outline

an outline that briefly notes a speakers main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form


subject of a speech


a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideasLabel a sheet of paper into 9 columns called People, Places, Things, Event, Processes, Concepts, Natural Phenomena, Problems, and Plans & Policies.

general purpose

the broad goal of a speech,inform or persuade


you act as a teacher who conveys information. enhance knowledge


, you're act as an advocate or partisan, You want to change or structure the attitudes or actions of your audience, get them to believe something or do something as a result of your speech

specific purpose

a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hope to accomplish in his or her speech

central idea(thesis statement)

a one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech(gist of your subject)_

Tips for Formulating The Specific Purpose Statement

Write the purpose statement as a Full Infinitive Phrase, not as a Fragment, 2. Express your purpose as a statement, Not as a question, 3. Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement, 4. Limit your purpose statement to one distinct idea. Stay away from compound sentences. Don't use "and" or "or", 5. Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general.

Questions to Ask about your Specific Purpose

1. Does My Purpose Meet the Assignment? , 2. Can I Accomplish My Purpose in the Time Allotted? 3. Is the Purpose Relevant to my Audience? 4. Is the Purpose too Trivial For My Audience? 5. Is The Purpose Too Technical For My Audience? Dry and Technical speeches = sleep.

residual message-

what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech -

• Audience- centeredness

keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation

• Identification

speakers trying to create a bond with their listeners by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences

• Egocentrism

tendency for people to be concerned and pay closest attention to those messages that affect their own value, beliefs, and well being


creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike.

• Demographic audience analysis

- audience analysis that focus on factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, racial ethnic or cultural background

Situational audience analysis

audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as: the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience towards the topic, the speaker, and the occasion.

• Fixed alternative questions

questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives

• Scale questions-

questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers ( seldom,, very seldom , very oftern)

• Open ended questions

questions that allow respondents to respond however they want

• Audience adaptation before the speech

need to keep audience at mind every stage of the speech, must submerge own views completely. Try to imagine what they'll like and dislike

• Audience adaptation during the speech

things may not go exactly as planned on speech day, cant use projector, different room, ect.. but don't panic just modify things and audience feedback


- a listing of all the books, periodicals and other resources owned by a library

call number

a number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where then can be found on the shelves

periodical database

a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines


a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author

reference work-

a work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers

general encyclopedia

a comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches or human knowledge.

special encyclopedia

a comprehensive encyclopedia- a comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as a religion, art, law, science, music, ect..


a reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year

biographical aid

a reference work that provides information about people

virtual library

a search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data

sponsoring organization

an organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet

research interview

an interview conducted to gather information for a speech

preliminary bibliography

a list complied early in the research process of works that look as if they might contain helpful information about a speech topic.

supporting materials

the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony.

Search engines

Google. Use + sign to get specific results

3 Criteria for Evaluating Internet Documents:

1. Authorship: is author identified and what are their qualifications? 2. Sponsorship: organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the Internet. 3. Recency: make sure it's up-to-date. Look for copyright date, publication date, or date of last revision.

5 Steps to Prepare for an Interview:

1. Define the purpose of the interview 2. Decide whom to interview 3. Arrange the interview 4. Decide whether to record the interview 5. Prepare your questions

6 Guidelines for Making an Interview Proceed Smoothly:

1. Dress appropriately and be on time 2. Repeat the purpose of the interview 3. Set up the recorder, if you are using one 4. Keep the interview on track 5. Listen carefully 6. Don?t overstay your welcome

Lucas's 4 Tips for Doing Research:

1. Start early 2. Make a preliminary bibliography 3. Take notes efficiently a. Take plenty of notes b. Record notes in a consistent format c. Make a separate entry for each note d. Distinguish among direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas 4. Think about your materials as your research

supporting materials

the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony.


a specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like

brief example

a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point

extended example

a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point

hypothetical example

an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation


numerical data

Using examples to enhance a speech:

1. Use examples to clarify your ideas 2. Use examples to reinforce your ideas 3. Use examples to personalize your ideas 4. Make examples vivid and richly textured a. Create a visual 5. Practice delivery to enhance your extended examples

Tips for using statistics:

1. Use stats to qualify your ideas 2. Use stats sparingly 3. Identify sources of your stats (to maintain credibility) 4. Explain your stats a. What do they mean? 5. Round off complicated stats a. To avoid complicated numbers in the speech 6. Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends a. Makes them easier to comprehend.

Tips for Using a Testimony:

1. Quote or paraphrase accurately 2. Use testimony from qualified sources 3. Use testimony from unbiased sources 4. Identify the people you quote or paraphrase


the average value of a group of numbers


the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest


the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers


quotations or paraphrases used to support a point

-expert testimony-

testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields

peer testimony

- testimony from ordinary people with first hand experience or insight on a topic

direct quotation

testimony that is presented word for word


to restate or summarize a sources ideas in ones own words

quoting out of context

quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it

strategic organization

putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience

main points

the major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points

chronological order

- a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern

chronological order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time patternNarrate sequence of events or explain a process

spatial order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional patternFollow directional pattern (ie Left to Right) . Usually used in informative speeches

casual order

a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship(2 main points) . Can be used in persuasive or informative speeches

problem-solution order

a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem Used in persuasive speeches

topical order

a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopicsDivide into subtopics . Ex. Describing a person & subtopic would be their achievements . This order is used the most in any type of speech

supporting materials-

the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony


a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them-four types, transition, inernal preview, internal summary and signpost


a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another

internal preview

a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next

internal summary

a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speakers preceding point or points


a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech that focuses attention on key ideas

Gain command of the three basic parts of your speech

The introduction, body, and conclusion.The most important part is the body.

Choosing your main points:

Should come from specific purpose statement or central idea of your speech . Be careful not to have too many main points . Strategic order of Main Points

Most effective order depends on:

Audience . Topic . Purpose

Different elements of an introduction and the function of each element:

1. Get the attention and interest of your audience o Relate the topic to the audience o State the importance of your topic o Startle the audience o Arouse the curiosity of the audience o Question the audience • Rhetorical question- a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud o Tell a story 2. Reveal the topic of your speech 3. Establish your credibility and good will o Goodwill- the audiences perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind o Credibility- the audiences perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic 4. Preview the body of the speech o Preview statement- a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body

o Tips for preparing the introduction:

o Keep the intro relatively brief. Not more than 10 to 20 percent of your speech o Be on the lookout for possible introductory materials as you do your research. File them with your notes so they will be handy when ready to use them o Be creative in devising your introduction. Experiment with two or three different openings and choose the one that will most interest audience o Don't worry about the exact wording of intro intil the body is finished. o Work out your intro in detail. Practice it over and over until you can deliver it smoothly from a minimum of notes. It will get speech off to a good start and boost confidence

Different elements of a conclusion and the function of each element:

1. Signal the end of the speech 2. Reinforce the central idea a. Summarize your speech b. End with a quotation c. Make a dramatic statement d. Refer to the introduction

Signal end of the speech:

?In conclusion,? ?My purpose has been,? ?Let me end by saying.? Conclusion is the climax of the speech. Use tone of your voice to signal end of speech. Use a dissolve ending.

o crescendo ending

a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity

o dissolve ending

a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement

preparation outline

a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the tile, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech

visual framework

the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speakers ideas.


a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech

speaking outline

a brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during the presentation of a speech

The Speaking Outline

follow the visual framework used in preparation outline -make sure the outline is legible -keep the outline as brief as possible -give yourself cues for delivering the speech

delivery cues

directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech

denotative meaning

the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phraseSimply describes the object, person, place, idea, or event to which the word refers. Think dictionary definition. Ex: "School" means "a place, institution, or building where instruction is given."

connotative meaning

the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrasevariable, figurative, and subjective. What the word suggests or implies. Ex: "School" includes all the feelings, associations, and emotions that the word touches off in different people. For some, it may connote personal growth, childhood friends, and a special teacher. For others, it might connote frustration, discipline, and boring homework assignments.Connotative meaning gives words their intensity and emotional power. Poets use connotation to enrich their meaning.

A speaker's meaning must be immediately comprehensible.

It must be so clear that there's no room for misunderstanding. Ensure this by using familiar words, choosing concrete words over abstract words, and eliminating verbal clutter.Don't use big, bloated words where short, sharp ones will do a better job.

concrete words

words that refer to tangible words "Carrot", "Pencil", "Nose", and "Door

abstract words

words that refer to ideas or concepts Humility", "Science", "Progress", and "Philosophy" Abstract words = much easier to misinterpret than concrete words.


discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea


- the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, action or ideasCreate word pictures that allow people to "see" the haunted house" or "feel" the bite of snow against your face. Concrete words = key to effective imagery. They call up mental impressions of sights, sounds, touch, smell, and taste.


an explicit comparison introduced with the word "like" or "as" between things that are essentially different yet have something in common


a trite or overused expression


an implicit comparison, not introduced with the word like or as between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common


the pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words


the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases or sentences


reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentence


repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words


the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure ex: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country").

inclusive language

language that does not stereotype, demean or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability sexual orientation or other factors

generic "he"-

the use of "he " to refer to both women and men

mixed metaphor

two or more incongruous comparisons are run together often with comic results

the four different methods of speech delivery:

1. Reading from a manuscript 2. Reciting from memory 3. Speaking Impromptu 4.Speaking extemporaneously

Nonverbal communication

communication based on a person's use of voice and body rather than on the use of words

manuscript speech

a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience

impromptu speech

a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation

extemporaneous speech-

a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes

conversational quality

- presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how may times it has been rehearsed


the loudness or softness of the speaker's voice


the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice


changes in the pitch or tone of a speakers voice


a constant pitch or tone of voice


the speed at which a person speaks


a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech

vocalized pause

a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with -vocalizations such as uh, er, and um

vocal variety

- changes in a speakers rate, pitch and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness


the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language


the physical production of particular speech sounds


a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary


the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication


motions of speakers hands or arms during a spee

eye contact

direct contact with the eyes of another person

the four different types of nonverbal body delivery

gestures, eye contact, movement personal appearance

8 aspects of vocal quality

1 pause 2 rate 3 vocal varitey 4 pronunciation 5 articulation 6 dialect 7 pitch 8 inflections


clarify ideas and give dramatic impact; informs the audience

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