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stoichiometry

unit conversion process involving mole equalities

electrolyte

a substance that produces ions when dissolved in water, and therefore, conducts electricity

calorie

amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celcius

specific heat capacity

the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius

aqueous

dissolved in water; not visible

dissociation

the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves ex. CaCl2 (s) -----> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)

orbital

area occupied by electrons within an energy level

polyatomic ion

a group of atoms that carry a charge

allotropes

different forms of the same element with different physical characteristics

Paulis Exclusion Principle

no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers

Aufbau Principle

orbitals of lowest energy fill with electrons first

photon

a particle of electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space

insoluble

incapable of being dissolved in a given substance

soluble

capable of being dissolved in a given substance

Law of Conservation of Matter

in a chemical reaction, atoms can be neither created nor destroyed, only rearranged

precipitate

a solid formed from an aqueous reaction; appears cloudy

empirical formula

A formula showing the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound

electronegativity

a measure of the ability of an atom in a compound to attract an electron

ionization energy

energy required to remove the most loosely held electron (a valence electron)

valence electron

electrons occupying the outer energy level, and electrons in unfilled "d" orbitals

isoelectronic

having the same number of electrons

polar covalent bond

the unequal sharing of electrons

ionic bond

the attraction between oppositely charged ions

covalent bond

the sharing of electrons between two atoms in overlapping orbitals

Hund's Rule

one electron per orbital of equivalent energy before doubling up

density

a measure of compactness; D=mass/volume

anion

an ion that carries a negative charge; X3-

cation

an ion that carries a positive charge; X2+

ion

an atom that has gained or lost an electron, becoming charged

atomic number

number of protons (H+)

mass number

total number of neutrons and protons

average atomic mass

weighted average of the atomic masses for the isotopes of an element

isotope

atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons, and therefore, different mass numbers

temperature

a measure of kinetic energy

significant figure

a number in a measurement

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