WAIS Assessment

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Which subtests were removed from the WAIS-IV that were on the WAIS-III?

Object Assembly and Picture Arrangement.

Necessary testing materials that do not come with the WAIS include

stopwatch, extra pencils without erasers, clipboard, my own pen or pencil for recording responses, and extra paper for taking notes.

The Army Performance Scale Examination included these subtests

Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Digit Symbol, and Object Assembly

While administering the test, the tone of conversation should be

natural, pleasant, and professional.

To maintain rapport while giving testing instructions,

read the instructions verbatim, but don't bury your head in the Manual while doing so.

In establishing rapport with the examinee, you may tell him or her,

"Most test takers find some questions easy and some questions quite difficult."

You may not tell an examinee,

"you got that answer correct, nice work."

To preserve the balance of maintaining rapport and getting necessary clinical information, it is best to

record the examinee's responses verbatim, but using abbreviations when possible.

When recording responses, don't do this:

Tell the examinee to wait just a few minutes while you very carefully write down every single word that is said.

What may cause a disruption in the rapport between examiner and examinee? What might be done to correct it?

If the examinee is terribly frustrated with a particular subtest, he or she may become disinterested in the testing. The examiner may need to give the examinee extra encouragement or a break before continuing testing.

How can an examiner establish rapport with an examinee who is terribly shy?

More time may need to be spent developing a relationship with the examinee prior to beginning testing.

Reverse rule

enables examiners to go back to easier items if the first set of items causes difficulty

Use the reverse rule in this case

If a perfect score is not obtained on either of the first two items administered

In the reverse rule, continue the reversal procedure until

the examinee obtains perfect scores on two consecutive items

Reversal rules are used in these Verbal Comprehension and Working Memory subtests

Similarities, Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Information, and Comprehension.

The Perceptual Reasoning subtests with a reverse rule are:

Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, and Picture Completion.

These verbal subtests do not have reverse rules

Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing

These processing speed subtests do not have reverse rules.

None of the Processing Speed subtests have reverse rules.

True or False? The examiner must memorize all directions in order to administer the test appropriately.


True or False? If you find you need to adapt the test to accommodate an individual with special needs, it is better not to administer the test altogether.


List some modifications that may be made in the test administration procedures to accommodate individuals with special needs.

Administering the test in American Sign Language, adding printed words, administering only one sale, eliminating time limits, extending the testing over more than one session.

Which is the only subtest in which all items must be administered?

Cancellation (this is on the WAIS IV)

True or False? If you are administering a subtest with subjective scoring and are unsure of what score an examinee's response should get, it is best to take a few minutes to carefully review that item's scoring rules and tell the examinee to wait quietly.


Which subtests require the use of a stopwatch?

Block design, Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Symbol Search, Digit Coding, Figure Weights, Cancellation, Picture Completion.

An example of a query that you may use to obtain more information about a vague, ambiguous, or incomplete response.

Tell me more about that. Or Explain what you mean.

True or False? You may repeat questions or instructions only on Verbal Comprehension subtests and never on Perceptual Reasoning subtests.


Why was it wise for the test developers to include Sample Items and allow teaching the task on the first two items?

Allowing examiners to teach the task ensures that the examinee understands the task; therefore, allowing the examiner to determine when the examinee does not know the answer as opposed to when he or she does not understand the task.

What are some of the benefits of using a standardized instrument?

Benefits of standardized instruments include being able to compare an individual to a similar group of people to gain an understanding of how he or she functions. You can obtain standardized scores, which are a common metric that is readily compared across many measures.

What are some of the weaknesses of using a standardized instrument?

The normative sample may not always be appropriate to compare a particular individual. Also, when testing patients with special needs, the standardized instruments do not offer flexibility in procedures, which are often needed with these groups. Not all standardized tests offer good reliability and validity, so the values obtained from these tests may not offer completely valuable information.

What areas of administration are likely to cause the most difficulty for novice examiners?

Novice examiners are likely to have difficulty with scoring subjective subtests, such as Vocabulary, Similarities, and Comprehension. Difficulty with utilizing multiple testing materials during some Perceptual Reasoning subtests, such as Block Design, while accurately recording the time with the stopwatch is also problematic for novices. Subtests which have very lengthy directions, such as Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, Coding, and Symbol Search, can often cause problems to those that are new to the WAIS-IV.

What are the characteristics of the WAIS-R reference group?

nonimpaired examinees aged 20-34 years

Why was it wise for the test developers to include Sample Items and allow teaching the task on the first two items?

Allowing examiners to teach the task ensures that the examinee understands the task; therefore, allowing the examiner to determine when the examinee does not know the answer as opposed to when he or she does not understand the task.

Which score is safer to prorate, the Verbal IQ or the Performance IQ?

The verbal IQ -- it is stronger than the Performance IQ.

Which one of the following scales is NOT safe to prorate? Full Scale IQ, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Verbal Comprehension Index, or Processing Speed Index?

Processing Speed Index

True or False? Like earlier editions of Wechsler's adult tests, the WAIS-IV scaled scores are determined by comparing an individual's performance to that of the reference group of adults ages 20-34.


Prorating scores becomes necessary when

only two PRI subtests or two VCI subtests are available. (Maybe you weren't able to give the entire test)

When prorating, the composite score is derived from

an estimated sum of the VCI or PRI scale.

Which subtest can substitute for Digit Span on the WAIS?

Letter-Number Sequencing

Which subtest can substitute for Arithmetic?

Letter-Number Sequencing

Which subtest can substitute for Block Design?

Figure Weights or Picture Completion

Which subtest can substitute for Matrix Reasoning?

Figure Weights or Picture Completion

Which subtest can substitute for Similarities?


Which subtest can substitute for Vocabulary?


Which subtest can substitute for Information?


When using both substitution and proration to derive the FSIQ, the rules are

one substitution and one prorated sum of scaled scores are allowed. Also, the substitution and proration must occur on different index scores.


developed tasks to find a way to distinguish "normal from retarded children".

Army Alpha

Essentially a group-administered Stanford Binet . Verbal tests, for those who could read.

Army Beta

group test composed of nonverbal tasks, for those who could not read


He adapted the French version of the Binet test at Stanford University to our own environment

Many of the tasks that David Wechsler used in his WAIS, WAIS-R, WAIS-III, and WAIS-IV were adapted from what sources?

Army Alpha, Army Beta, Army Performance Scale Examination, and Stanford-Binet

Terman IQ formula

Mental Age dived by Chronological Age MA/CA

Why was Wechsler's IQ formula different

He used deviation IQs (standard scores)

Wechsler designed his Intelligence test for


Binet designed his Intelligence test for


The most significant difference of Wechsler's test was he added

nonverbal performance

You can use the Letter Number Sequencing test if the results from this test are spoiled

Digit Span

What is the average IQ


In which subtest can you repeat a question one time


Wechsler's Definition of Intelligence

The capacitiy of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

Fluid reasoning

ability to process or manipulate abstractions, rules, generalizations, and logical relationships

working memory

ability to actively maintain information in conscious awareness, perfofrm some operation or manipulation with it, and produce a result

processing speed

ability to process information rapidly (which is dynamically related to one's ability to perform higher-order cognitive tasks)

Why did Wechsler think intelligence is global?

it characterizes the individual's behavior as a whole.

Updating the WAIS-IV's theoretical foundations was achieved by considering the following theoretical constructs EXCEPT which one of the following? gluid reasoning, working memory, processing speed, phonological processing

phonological processing

Which subtest in the following list is NOT new to the WAIS-IV? Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights, Cancellation, or Symbol Search?

Symbol Search

The results of confirmatory factor analysis that supported a Five-Factor CHC model showed three WAIS-IV subtests to load highly on the fluid reasoning (Gf) factor. These subtests are Figure Weights, Matrix Reasoning, and


The WAIS IV and the WISC-IV offer the same four indexes:

Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI), Working Memory (WMI), and Processing Speed (PSI)


fluid reasoning


crystallized knowledge


general intelligence

Army Performane Scale Examination

an alternative test for those who could not be tested validly by either the Army Alpha or the Army Beta

Which subtests do NOT use a reverse rule?

Digit Span, Visual Puzzles, Coding, Figure Weights, Comprehension, Cancellation

True or False? As long as an examinee points to the correct location of the missing object in Picture Completion, score the response "1", even if the verbal response is incorrect.


True or False, if you forget to administer the Digit Span Sequencing Portion of the Digit Span subtest, you can simply calculate the Digit Span Scaled Score based on the Raw Score sum of Digit Span Forward and Digit Span Backward because that was how Digit Span was calculated on previous versions of the WAIS.


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