2 ideas of a person after Sufist "union w/ God"
1. Come back as a "perfect person" 2. "self" is eliminated and person becomes vessel through which God operates
Dhikr / Zikr
Sufi "recollection" (recitation of the name of God)
Sufi "friend of God"; God's elect
Sufi "the path" (to God); Sufi order
Najm al-din Kubra
founder of Kubrawiyya Sufi order
a biography of a saint
Sufi order created by Jalaluddin Rumi; aka "whirling dervishes"
author of the mathnawi / masnavi and founder of Mevlevi Order
mathnawi / masnavi
"the Persian Qur'an"; an important poetic work concerning direct union with God in the Sufi tradition; considered more important than the Qur'an itself
founder of the Senussi order; member of ~40 Sufi orders
"Feats of the Knowers of God"; 14th century author; as a Sufi, shows concern for the shariah and deeds of Muhammad
the ruler's personal assistant; put in power following the Mongols
the importance of guides in Sufism (Aflaki, Rumi)
echoes the sound of God
Khidr / Moses
story that reflects the need for guides and to not question them (have supreme faith in)
source of anti-Sufism
Ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Wahhabi Islam (Saudi Arabia); created most important critique of Sufism
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
first president of the Republic of Turkey; banned Sufi order (1925); switch to Gregorian calendar / Roman alphabet
5 places of anti-Sufism
India, Turkey, Arabic Middle East, Africa, and North America / Europe
India and A.S.
not strongly critical; more modernist than Wahabbi critique; Sufis and Hindus worship together
celebrated Indian Sufi mystic of the 11th century; attracts many devotees on his Urs
death day of a Sufi saint; "union with the beloved"
Turkey and A.S.
Sufis forgo use of Sufi words
female Turkish Sufi master; "If it's OK to teach Sufism in the USA, it should be in Turkey, too."
Arabic Middle East and A.S.
Anti-sufists thought Sufism would die; Sufis are able to participate in respectable occupations; Khalwati Order in Cairo
West Africa and A.S.
1950's - prominent positions in Sudan until 1970's; political connections and general Sufi welfare...(problems?); Sheik Aly N'Daw from Senegal
Sheik Aly N'Daw
Senegalese Sufi spiritual leader
Europe & N. America and A.S.
"fusion Sufism" - don't follow common practices, attracted convert / Western Sufis (these folks divorce Sufism and Islam); entrepeneurial Sufis (Sheikh Nazim al-Haqqani); spread of immigrant communities
Sheikh Nazim al-Haqqani
Turkish Sheikh and leader of the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Order
Sufi Hierarchy of importance and initiation
Sharia, Tariqa, Haqiqa, Marifat
"Truth"; "Unity with God"; stage of Sufism in which members attempt to reach direct knowledge of God while still alive
mystical experience of intuitive knowledge achieved by Sufis through ecstatic experiences as opposed to rationally
...more from Sufism...
the study / theory of law, jurisprudence
a jurisprudent; NO enforcement power; "may not be" government appointed
a judge; HAS enforcement power; government appointed (by caliph, etc.)
school of law
5 Sources of Fiqh
Hadith and Sunna, Qur'an, Analogy (Sunni) or Reason (Shi'i), Consensus (ijma; i.e. what scholars before have said); Custom (urf) the informal 5th, what people in this part of the world generally do=
Egyptian documentary Sufis; practitioners of the silent Zikr
legal opinion from an Islamic scholar
Differences between Code of Law / Collection of Fatwas
connected to political bodies / not necessarily connected to governmental functions
4 types of "jihad" historically
neighboring tribes, hostility (savage nations), jihad, against seceders[
author who argues that religion should play some role in democratic government in a religious society
Arab Spring (2010) main gripe
with the authoritarian, secular governments (?)
importance of colonialism and Islam
5 sources of Islamic law
Quran, Hadith/Sunna, consensus, reason/analogy, (unofficial 5th) custom
two military conflicts that preceded bin laden's rise to prominence
Cold War and Gulf (Iraq) War
Religion isn't just about words!
Earnst, Koran by Heart, Hajj video, Madjid