Phillip II sent Spanish fleet to invade England; It was defeated by the British fleet and a savage storm.
The War of the Spanish Succession
In 1854, Northern Netherlands provinces revolted and declared their independence as the Dutch Netherlands
King of England sent John Cabot in 1497 to find a northerly route to Asia.
Ruled England from 1485 - 1503 (Henry VIII, Elizabeth I)
Broke with Roman Catholic Church; Parliament passed Act of Supremacy making him head of Church of England.
Six wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Kathryn Howard, Kathern Parr
Son of Henry VI; Became king at 10 in 1547. Under Parliament passed laws to strengthen Protestant Reform.
Edward's half sister; became queen when he died; wanted to return England to Catholic faith; Burned Protestants at the stakes.
Queen after Mary enforced reforms called Elizabethan settlement which were a compromise between Protestant and Catholic practices.
Divine right; in 1603, he declared "kings are called Gods because they sit upon God's Throne on earth."
Began in 1603; First monarch was James I, Second was Charles I; He was executed Jan 1649; He ruled without Parliament. Stuart Monarch in constant battle with Parliament
Branch of Capetian dynasty; ruled Navare and France in 10th Century. By 18th, held thrones in Spain, Naples and Sicily and Parma French Kings Henry IV
The Age of Absolutism from 1550 - 1800 when monarchs built strong centralized governments and most rulers held absolute power.
theory - believed that the kings authority to rule came directly from God.
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)
Became king in 1589; He laid foundation for royal absolutism by building bureaucracy and reducing influence of nobles.