Community oriented period
a philosophical movement in policing designed to make the community to co-active partner with law enforcement.
the era in law enforcement when the goal was to increase the professionalization of policing, thus removing it from political pressures.
Problem- oriented policies
a philosophical movement in policing that attempts to take the focus of the police away from responding to calls and crime problems in a reactive fashion.
a controversial school based program designed to encourage youths to avoid drugs.
a police program in which officers go to schools to educate youths on the danger of gangs.
Police Cadet Program
a police program designed for older adolescents and college students that allows participants to perform some police tasks and learn about law enforcement.
a military style correctional program where juveniles are subjected to a rigorous regimen of training and education.
the basic philosophy behind the creation of the juvenile court. The court was more of a hospital where juveniles went to be cured of their illness.
period of time during the 1960s and early 1970s when the U.S supreme court made several rulings that created or applied additional due process protections to criminal justice.
rights that govern the process by which a hearing or court action will proceed.
rights that protect an individual against arbitrary and unreasonable action.
Kent v. United States
first U.S supreme court case in which it was ruled that juveniles facing waiver to adult court are entitled to some basic due process rights.
Breed v. Jones
case in which the U,S Supreme Court ruled that juveniles are protected against double jeopardy by the U.S Constitution.
Proof beyond a reasonable doubt
the facts and evidence are entirely convincing and satisfy that the person committed the act beyond any reasonable doubt, sometimes equated with 95 percent certainty.
Preponderance of evidence
evidence which is of greater weight or more convincing than evidence that is offered in opposition to it. Sometimes referred to as more than half of the level of certainty.
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
U.S supreme court case in which it was ruled that juveniles are not entitled to trial by jury in delinquency proceedings.
In Re Winship
U.S supreme court case that decided the standard of proof in juvenile delinquency proceedings is proof beyond a reasonable doubt.
New Jersey v. T.L.O
the court decision that schools officials only need reasonable grounds, not probable cause, to search a student when they suspect that the search will turn up illegal evidence.
Schall v. Martin
court case that decided juveniles can be held in preventive detention prior to adjudication.
a legal doctrine in which the state plays the role of the parent.
the court authority granted by law to hear a case.
any behavior that is prohibited by the juvenile law of the state.
behaviors that are typically legal for adults but illegal for juveniles. Examples include curfew, loitering, truancy, and being a runaway.
Juvenile court judge
the individual who is primarily responsible for the operation of the juvenile court including deciding guilt or innocence and disposition of cases.
A person who prepares and conducts the prosecution of persons accused of crime. It is usually a public official
the process by which juvenile pleads guilty in exchange for concessions made by the prosecutor.
Officers of the probation office of a court. Probation officer duties include conducting presentence investigations, preparing presentence reports on convicted defendants, and supervising released defendants.
a facility designed for short term secure confinement of the juvenile prior to court disposition or execution of a court order.
a sanction by which a juvenile offender pays the victim for the harm done due to the offense.
a sanction imposed requiring a juvenile offender to perform a predetermined number of hours of volunteer work in the community.
a hearing held in juvenile court prior to the adjudication hearing in which the juvenile is made aware of their rights and is asked to enter a plea to the charges.
a hearing to detewrmine whether there is evidence beyond a reasonable doubt to support the allegations against the juvenile.
Pre disposition report
contains background information on the juvenile, a description of the circumstances surrounding the juveniles delinquent acts, as well as a disposition recommendation from the probation officer.
dis positional hearing
a hearing held after a juvenile has been adjudicated to determine what sanction should be imposed on the juvenile.
a disposition imposed by the court allowing the adjudication offender to remain in the community, with a parent or other guardian, as long as the offender abides by certain conditions.
Names for waiver to adult court
judicial waiver, legislative waiver,and prosecutor waiver.
a type of judicial waiver that involves the prosecutor filing a petition with a juvenile court requesting that the juvenile to adult court.
a type of waiver to adult court in which a juvenile court judge makes the decision to waive a juvenile to adult court.
a type of waiver to adult court in which a juvenile is automatically sent to adult court because of the type of offense that was committed.
a hearing held in juvenile court in which a prosecutor and defense attorney may present evidence on whether or not the juvenile should be waived to adult court.
a type of waiver to adult court that occurs when there is concurrent jurisdiction between juvenile and adult courts and the prosecutor has the option of filing charges against the juvenile offender in either court.
the monitoring and support of juveniles who have been released from custody or supervision by the juvenile court.
a relatively unique correctional strategy that involves shocking the juveniles with a brief commitment to an institutional facility and then releasing them on probation.
confining juveniles to their homes when they are not at school or undergoing treatment.
questionnaires distributed to victims of crime where they report their financial losses, mental and physical injuries, and impact of the crime on their lives.
these programs attempt to bring together juvenile delinquents and their victims, hoping to mediate the situation between the parties.
the payment of money or the rendering of restorative service or work to the victim of a crime, whether a person or a business.
Day treatment program
a type of community correctional facility where juvenile offenders report during the day for school, vocational, and other treatment programs.
Minority group that has the most gang members
Hispanic has the most gang members.
public markings used by gang members to identify their existence.
a response to gangs which involves efforts to mobilize the community in an effort to deal with gangs.
a response to gangs that involves counseling and other direct attempts to change the values of youth in order to make gang involvement less likely.
a response to gangs that involves the use of the criminal justice system to reduce gang behavior through the use of formal social control including arrest and incarceration.
a personality disorder that involves the commission of delinquent acts and little concern for the feelings and well being of others.
a criminological theory that contends that juveniles who are labeled delinquent or criminal will eventually commit secondary delinquent acts to live up to the label.
National incidents based reporting system
the new data collection system implemented to collect individual-level data on offenders, victims, and the crime itself from police departments. The system collects detailed statistical data on victims and perpetrators as well as the incident itself. It is designed to address many of the problems with the UCR.
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act
a new law specially designed to curb the illegal trafficking of human beings, especially juveniles into the United States for the purpose of forced labor and servitude, including prostitution.
Anti- social disorders
is a pervasive patter of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
Legalistic style period
style in which authority is highly centralized and requires officers to enforce one set of uniform standards on the public
Probation" is a supervision program created by law, which is ordered by the court in cases involving a youth who has been found guilty of having committed a delinquent act. Probation is a legal status in which the freedom of the youth is limited and the youth's activities are restricted in lieu of commitment to the custody of the Department of Juvenile Justice.
Responses to gangs
the National Youth Gang Survey sought to gather information on organized programs to deal with gangs in communities throughout the United States. The strategies used by various communities can be divided into five categories: Community organization, opportunities provision, organizational change and development, social intervention, suppression.
Federal statue to prosecute gangs
federal government in rico prosecution , several states have enacted their own RICO style legislation to mak ethis option more readily available to them and it been successful in in large criminal organization and began to crack down in on violent drug gangs.
Shooters in Columbine High
Klebold and Harris hand picked their victims. There were three shooters, and probably four more accomplices, that helped plant bombs, and others students that knew what was happening. At a minimum, seven of the Trench Coat Mafia, were involved. The suspected accomplices failed lie detectors, destroyed computer hard drives, and had interlocking alibis.
Substance abuse disorder
An unhealthy dependence on alcohol or other drugs
Strategy to reduce child prostitution
Stiffer teenage curfew and loitering laws, more runaway shelters, tougher penalties for pimps and customers, and a concerted effort to prevent teenage runaways through counseling and direct family involvement are all recommended strategies aimed at reducing child prostitution.