Bacteria: Deinococci & Nonproteobacteria Gram Negatives

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Akinetes

Specialized, nonmotile, dormant, thick-walled resting cells formed by some cyanobacteria

Anoxygenic photosynthesis

Photosynthesis that does not oxidize water to produce oxygen; a form of photosynthesis characteristic of purple and green photosynthetic bacteria and heliobacteria

Axial fibrils or periplasmic flagella

The flagella that lie under the outer sheath and extend from both ends of the spirochete cell to overlap in the middle and form the axial filament

Carboxysomes

Polyhedral inclusions that contain the carbon dioxide-fixation enzyme rubisco; found in cyanobacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and thiobacilli

Chlamydiae

Obligate intracellular bacteria that have a unique mode of reproduction

Chlorosomes

Elongated, intramembranous vesicles found in green sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria; contain light-harvesting pigments; sometimes called chlorobium vesicles

Cyanobacteria

A large group of gram-negative bacteria that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis using a system like that present in photosynthetic eukaryotes

Elementary body (EB)

A small, dormant body that serves as the agent of transmission between host cells in the chlamydial life cycle

Gliding motility

A type of motility in which a microbial cell moves along a solid surface

Green nonsulfur bacteria

Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophylls a and c; usually photoheterotrophic and display gliding motility; include members of the phylum Chloroflexi

Green sulfur bacteria

Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that conatin bacteriochlorophylls a plus c, d, or e; photolithoautotrophic; use hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, or sulfur as electron donor; include members of the phylum Chlorobi

Heterocysts

Specialized cells of cyanobacteria that are the sites of nitrogen fixation

Oxygenic photosynthesis

Photosynthesis that oxidizes water to form oxygen; the form of photosynthesis characteristic of plants, protists, and cyanobacteria

Phototaxis

The ability of certain phototrophic microbes to move, either by gliding or swimming motility, in response to a light source

Phycobilisomes

Particles on the membranes of cyanobacteria that contain photosynthetic pigments and electron transport chains

Reticulate body (RB)

The cellular form in the chlamydial life cycle whose role is growth and reproduction within the host cell

Axial filament

The whole complex of periplasmic flagella

Hyperthermophile

What type of "-phile" are members of the phylum Aquificae?

Chemolithoautotrophic

Are members of the phylum Aquificae autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic, lithotrophic, phototrophic, organotrophic, or a combination?

Hyperthermophile

What type of "-phile" are members of the phylum Thermotogae?

Active geothermal areas

Where do you find members of the phylum Thermotogae?

Chemoheterotrophs

Are members of the phylum Thermotogae autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic, lithotrophic, phototrophic, organotrophic, or a combination?

Spherical or rod-shaped, often associated in pairs or tetrads

What shape are members of the genus Deinococcus?

Stains gram positive

What is unique about the gram-negative genus Deinococcus?

Palmitoleic acid

What acid do members of the genus Deinococcus have in their plasma membrane instead of teichoic acid?

Desiccation and radiation

What are members of the genus Deinococcus resistant to?

Two circular chromosomes, a mega plasmid, and a small plasmid

What does the genome of members of the genus Deinococcus consist of?

Mn(II)

In the genus Deinococcus, accumulation of what ion protects against radiation-induced toxic oxygen species?

Cyanobacteria

What type of bacteria carries out oxygenic photosynthesis?

Anoxygenic photosynthesis

What type of photosynthesis do green and purple bacteria use?

Purple sulfur bacteria

Which bacteria uses reduced sulfur compounds as electron sources and accumulates sulfur granules within their cells?

Green sulfur bacteria

Which bacteria uses reduced sulfur compounds as electron sources and accumulates sulfur granules outside their cells?

Purple nonsulfur bacteria

Which bacteria uses organic molecules rather than sulfur or water as electron sources for photosynthesis?

Bacteriochlorophyll

What type of chlorophyll does purple and green bacteria have?

Anaerobes

Are purple and green bacteria aerobes, facultative anaerobes, or anaerobes?

Deeper, anaerobic zones of aquatic habitats

Where do purple and green bacteria grow best?

Chlorophyll a

Which absorbs longer wavelengths of light? Chlorophyll a or bacteriochlorophyll?

Chlorophyll a

What type of chlorophyll does cyanobacteria have?

Surface of bodies of water

Where do you usually find cyanobacteria?

Green sulfur bacteria

What type of bacteria does the phylum Chlorobi contain?

Green nonsulfur bacteria

What type of bacteria does the phylum Chloroflexi contain?

Purple sulfur bacteria and purple nonsulfur bacteria

What type of bacteria does the phylum Proteobacteria contain?

Heliobacteria

What type of bacteria does the phylum Firmicutes contain?

Chlorosomes

Photosynthetic pigments in green sulfur bacteria are located in what ellipsoidal vesicles?

Gas vesicles

What do green sulfur bacteria use to adjust their depth in water?

Chloroflexi

Which phylum contains filamentous, gliding bacteria?

Thermophilic

What temperature range does the Chloroflexus thrive in?

Herpetosiphon

Which genus in the phylum Chloroflexi is nonphotosynthetic?

Pentose phosphate pathway

What glycolysis pathway does Cyanobacteria use?

Trichomes

Rows of cyanobacterial cells that are in close contact with one another over a large area

Gram-negative

Are cyanobacteria gram-negative or gram-positive?

All of these

Do cyanobacteria reproduce by binary fission, budding, fragmentation, or multiple fission?

Subsection I

Cyanobacteria; unicellular rods or cocci; most are nonmotile; reproduce by binary fission or budding

Subsection II

Cyanobacteria; unicellular, though some may be held together in an aggregate by an outer wall; reproduce by multiple fission to form baeocytes

Subsection III

Filamentous cyanobacteria with branched trichomes

Subsection IV

Unbranched filamentous cyanobacteria that can form heterocysts and akinetes

Subsection V

Branched filamentous cyanobacteria that can form heterocysts and akinetes

Contain chlorophyll b, lack phycobilisomes

How do prochlorophytes differ from other cyanobacteria?

Prochlorococcus

What may be the most abundant oxygenic photosynthetic organism on Earth?

Planctomycetes

Spherical or oval, budding bacteria that lack peptidoglycan and have distinctive crateriform structures in their cell walls

Membrane bounded

What is unique about the nuclear body in Gemmata and Pirullela?

Planctomyces

Which genus of the Planctomycetes attaches to surfaces through a stalk and holdfast?

Gram-negative

Are bacteria in the genus Chlamydia gram-positive or gram-negative?

Spirochaetes

Which phylum uses an axial filament for creeping motility?

All of these

Are members of the phylum Spirochaetes aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or anaerobic?

Anaerobic, sulfide-rich aquatic environments

Where do you find members of the genus Spirochaeta?

Aerobic water and moist soils

Where do you find members of the genus Leptospira?

Spirochaetes

Members of which phylum are the causative agents of syphilis and Lyme disease?

Anaerobic

Are members of the class Bacteroides aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or anaerobic?

Oral cavity and intestinal tract

Where do you find members of the class Bacteroides?

Rods with pointed ends

What shape are members of the genus Cytophaga?

Microcysts

What are the spherical resting cells produced by the Sporocytophaga called?

Aerobic

Are Cytophaga and Sporocytophaga aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or anaerobic?

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