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Secretion of aldosterone will:

cause water to be retained

B vitamins are

water soluble

Vitamin K is

fat soluble

True/false An individual can live with only one kidney.

True

Failure to have a menstrual period:

amenorrhea

Aldosterone is secreted by the:

adrenal cortex

Which of the following gives protection against parasites?

eosinophils

The effect of increased sodium concentration in the blood

increases blood volume

How many sperm cells are produced at the end of one complete cycle of meiosis?

4

Which of the following is a "normal" range for fasting blood glucose levels?

80-110 mg per 100 mL of blood

The deciduous teeth are the:

"baby" teeth

Dehydration caused by vomiting or diarrhea is of greater concern in

infants

Absence of urine

anuria

Which of the following is the most distal part of the small intestine

ileum

True/false Fibrinogen is a blood protein involved in blood clotting

True

The largest of the salivary glands

parotid

Aldosterone helps to regulate

sodium

Which one of the following is important in glucose metabolism?

insulin

What is the condition in which a patient voids urine involuntarily?

incontinence

Mumps involves which one of the following glands?

parotid

True/false The pharynx is part of both the respiratory and digestive systems

True

The largest gland in the body

liver

A macrophage is a type of:

phagocyte

A lack of Vitamin B12 may result in:

pernicious anemia

Male and female sex cells are called

gametes

Which one of the following is the "preferred" source of energy for the body?

carbohydrates

Filtration occurs in the:

glomerulus

Temperature regulation is under the control of the

hypothalamus

A chemical substance that prevents a sharp change in the pH of a fluid when an acid or base is added to it:

buffer

True/false Very little sodium is lost in the feces

True

The study of aging:

Gerontology

Another name for urination is

micturition

Which of the following is NOT a function of the placenta?

respiration

The greatest amount of water is found in:

intracellular fluid

A fertilized egg is called a

zygote

The openings of the ureters and the urethra in the urinary bladder is a triangular region called:

the trigone

The resulting symptoms of a hiatal hernia are referred to as

gastroesophageal reflux disease

True/false Assimilation is the process of food molecules entering the cells.

True

True/false The uterine tubes are directly in contact with the ovaries

False

The appendix is directly attached to

Cecum

The mitral valve is also known as the

bicuspid valve

The mixture of sperm, and the secretions of the accessory sex glands:

semen

The foreskin of the penis is also called the:

prepuce

A solution with a pH of 4 would be considered

acidic

The nucleus of a sperm cell is covered by a specialized structure that has lytic enzymes that are capable of penetrating the ova. This structure is the:

acrosome

Another name for tooth decay:

caries

Aldosterone is secreted by:

the adrenal cortex

Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

endocarditis

Which of the following is the hardest tissue in the body?

enamel

The inner part of the kidney:

renal medulla

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging?

Nerve conduction speed increases

Which one of the following is NOT a muscle of respiration?

deltoid

An increase in capillary pressure will:

shift fluid out of the capillaries

In women the urethra is part of the

urinary tract

True/false Progesterone is produced continually throughout the menstrual cycle

False

The function of testosterone:

all of the above

The color of "normal" urine:

transparent yellow, amber or straw colored

Of the main fluid compartments, which varies the most in terms of its volume?

interstitial fluid

Pneumonia involves the

lower respiratory tract

The urethra is longer in:

men

Which of the following is NOT part of the female external genitalia?

prepuce

True/false Renal calculi (kidney stones) is a type of cancer

False

The testes are responsible for producing:

a and d
testosterone
spermatozoa

The external opening through which urine leaves the body:

urinary meatus

A deficiency of this vitamin may lead to neural tube defects in infants:

folic acid

All of the following influence blood pressure EXCEPT:

strength of atrial contractions

Fertilization of the ovum by the sperm occurs in

the fallopian tubes

How many functional ova are produced at the end of one complete cycle of meiosis?

1

The body's best defense against wide variations in blood pH

the kidneys

When the bladder is empty, the inner lining is wrinkled and lies in folds called:

rugae

Which of the following help to regulate the amount of urine excreted?

a, b and c
antidiuretic hormone
aldosterone
atrial natriuretic hormone

Which of the following is the most distal structure in relation to the kidneys

the urethra

This cells of this organ secrete bile

liver

Which phase of postnatal development extends from the end of infancy to puberty?

Childhood

Which of the following secrete the male sex hormone testosterone?

interstitial cells

Of the main fluid compartments, which varies the least in terms of its volume?

plasma

Plasma and interstitial fluid are part of the:

extracellular fluid compartment

The pH of a solution represents

The concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution

The ph of blood:

7.35-7.45

Which of the following is a buffer?

bicarbonate

True/false The virus that causes German measles (rubella) can easily pass through the placental "barrier

True

The number of nephrons in each kidney is approximately:

one to two million

The uterus is located

Posterior and superior to the urinary bladder

Urine formation begins with:

filtration

Which is MORE important in maintaining homeostasis?

fluid output

The essential organs of reproduction in men and women are called:

gonads

What gland secretes sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize the acidity of the gastric juice that enters the intestines?

Pancreas

True/false Glucose is a normal finding in the urine

False

Arterial blood:

has a higher pH than venous blood

Sodium, calcium, and potassium are important electrolytes and are considered:

cations

Protein digestion begins in the:

stomach

We can lose heat through the skin through all the following processes EXCEPT:

condensation

A condition where dangerous levels of toxins build up in the blood:

uremia

Which of the following are involved in the formation of urine?

a, b, and c
filtration
absorption
secretion

Emphysema reduces the oxygenation of blood, leading to hypoxia and excessive carbon dioxide in the blood. This is an example of

Respiratory acidosis

Which level of the spinal cord is involved with the regulation of micturition?

sacral

True/false If fluid intake equals fluid output, then the total amount of water in the body will not change.

False

Normal adult urine output is approximately

1500-1600 mL/day

The structural and functional unit of the kidney:

nephron

True/false Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus may result in ketoacidosis

True

Protection received by an infant from the mother's breast milk

natural passive immunity

A single layer of squamous epithelial cells lining the inner surface of the circulatory system:

endothelium

True/false Phagocytes are cells that are capable of ingesting foreign substances and organisms for their destruction.

True

True/false Polycythemia may increase blood viscosity (thickness) due to an increase in red blood cells and that may put a person at risk for stroke or myocardial infarction

True

Which one of the following is NOT considered a formed element in the blood?

mast cell

True/false Blood pressure may decrease with increased heart rate because less blood may be pumped into the systemic circulation.

True

Pneumonia involves the:

lower respiratory tract

The hepatic portal circulation routes blood through the

liver

What keeps the trachea from collapsing?

15-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage

Artery that supplies the brain and the meninges:

internal carotid

Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic sign of inflammation?

pallor

True/false The pharyngeal tonsils are also called the adenoids

True

The first branches of the respiratory tree to come off the trachea

primary bronchi

In a hematocrit test

The red blood cells are located at the bottom of the tube

An excessive production of erythrocytes

polycythemia

The amount of air we breathe in and out with a normal breath is referred to as:

tidal volume

The red pigment in blood that carries oxygen

hemoglobin

During vigorous exercise, the greatest change in blood flow occurs in:

skeletal muscle

In the ABO blood typing system, this is the "universal donor"

Type O

Function as exchange vessels for substances such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide:

capillaries

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