← Marine Science Unit 4: Physical Oceanography Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Thermocline Vertical temperature gradient Deep water Water to a depth of 4000m (no contact with bottom) Bottom water Water that is in contact with the seafloor (highest density) Halocline Vertical salinity gradient 3.98°C Temperature of maximum density of water Pycnocline Strong, vertical density gradient Latent heat of vaporization Heat needed for a change between the liquid and vapor state Latent heat of fusion Heat necessary to change the state of water between solid and liquid Specific Heat capacity Amount of heat required to raise the temp of one unit mass of a substance by 1°C. Degrees (Celsius) What temperature is measured in Calories What heat is measured in Heat Measure of the total motion (kinetic energy) of particles in a substance Temperature Measure of the average motion of particles in a substance Thermal inertia Earth's tendency to resist temp change Thermal equilibrium Earth cools at the same rate that it heats Aphotic zone Depth of ocean in which there is no sunlight Dysphotic zone Depth of ocean in which there is light, but not enough for photosynthesis Euphotic zone Depth of ocean in which there is enough light for photosynthesis Color that penetrates deepest into the ocean Blue Color that penetrates the least into the ocean Red Coriolis Effect Tendency for the path of a moving object to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere; caused by the Earth's rotation Hadley cell Atmospheric circulation cell that lies between equator and 30º latitude Ferrel cell Atmospheric circulation cell that lies between 30º and 60º latitude Convection Vertical movement of currents and air masses caused by temperature differences in a fluid such as air ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) Caused by a buildup of warm water in eastern equatorial Pacific Gyres Circular flow of water in each ocean basin, caused by the elevated sea level in the middle of the ocean. Thermohaline circulation Vertical water motion caused by differing water densities Ocean conveyor belt Interconnected flow of currents that redistribute heat throughout the Earth Counter current Current that flows in the opposite direction of its adjacent current Geostrophic current Currents that result from balance between pressure gradient force and Coriolis force Wave speed This equals wavelength divided by period Tsunami Giant wave that results from a sudden displacement of water caused by earthquakes Wave refraction Bending of waves as they approach shore Wave reflection When a wave bounces back when hits obstacle4.6 Wave diffraction When waves pass an obstacle, energy shifts forming a new wave pattern Disturbing force Force that causes waves Transverse wave Wave in which matter oscillates perpendicular to direction of energy transmission (Light waves) Orbital wave Wave in which matter oscillates in a circular path as energy passes (Ocean waves!) Longitudinal wave Wave in which matter oscillates in same direction of energy transmission (Sound waves) Deepwater wave Wave that occurs in water that is deeper than half its wavelength Shallow water wave Wave that occur when depth is less than 1/20 its wavelength; Wavelength Horizontal distance between the crests of two successive waves Wave height Vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave Wave period Time it takes two waves to pass same point Diurnal tide Tidal pattern with one high and one low tide each day Semidiurnal tide Tidal pattern with two relatively equal high and two low tides each day Mixed tide Tidal pattern with two unequal high and low tides each day Spring tide Extreme tides during each month caused by the Earth, sun and moon being aligned (full or new moon) Neap tide Weak tides during the month caused by sun, Earth and moon forming a right angle (1st and 3rd quarter of moon) As salinity increases, density increases How does salinity affect density? As temperature decreases, density increases but only to 3.98 degrees How does temperature affect density? Wave Speed Wavelength divided by wave period = ? Moderates Earth's climate How do currents affect Earth's climate? Moon and Sun's gravity What causes the tides? Clockwise Direction of current flow in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the Coriolis force Counterclockwise Direction of current flow in the Southern Hemisphere as a result of the Coriolis force Angle of Incidence Angle at which suns rays strike the Earth; causes the Earth to heat unevenly Orbital Inclination Angle of the Earth's tilt with respects to its orbit; causes the Earth to heat unevenly Elliptical Shape of the Earth's orbit; causes the Earth to heat unevenly Wave Speed, Wave Duration, and Fetch What three factors affect wave size? Wind What is the disturbing force for most surface waves in the ocean? Wave breaks This occurs when the crest of a wave travels faster than its trough, and the height to length ratio exceeds 1:7 Polar regions Area on Earth where deep and bottom water masses form. Wind What force moves most of the surface currents in the ocean? Increases The speed and distance traveled by sound ____ in the ocean.