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Transcontinental Railroad

a railroad that connected the eastern United States to the western United States. The railroad firmly bonded the West Coast the Union, created a trade route to the far-east, and helped the western expansion

James Fisk

an American financier that was partnered with Jay Gould in tampering with the railroad stocks. He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.

Jay Gould

an American financier that was partnered with James Fisk in tampering with the railroad stocks for personal profit He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.

Boomer

settlers that were waiting for the government to officially open Oklahoma for settlement. Their haste helped Oklahoma by 1907; however, they showed that the frontier was slowly shrinking in respect to available land.

Sooner

eager settlers that jumped the gun to settle Oklahoma when the government declared the availability of new land. Their haste helped Oklahoma by 1907; however, they showed that the frontier was slowly shrinking in respect to available land.

Sand Creek

a massacre of Indians by federal troops just so that they didn't make any trouble.

George Custer

an American general/colonel that took part in the Sioux War and ultimately died in an engagement at the Big Horn.

*Nez Perce

The Nez Perce Indians were another tribe that was attacked by the white settlers.

*Chief Joseph

the leader of the Nez Perce when they were at war with the whites.

Helen Hunt Jackson

an author who wrote A Century of Dishonor which chronicled the government's actions against the Indians. She also wrote Romona, which was a love story about Indians. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians.

Dawes Act

This act removed the status of legal entity from the tribes, removed tribal ownership of land and gave family heads 160 acres. It also granted citizenship if they acted like good Americans for x number of years. The act attempted to make the Indians act more as individuals and reflected the government's stance towards them until 1934. The act also accelerated the decay of Indian culture but increased the population.

Trust

an economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.

Pool

an economic agreement between CEOs to divide business in a given area and share the profits. This was ineffective due to personal greed, but it deed lead the way to Trusts.

Cornelius Vanderbilt

a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

George Pullman

the inventor of the Pullman Car, which was a luxurious train car for the rich. These cars helped convince the rich to take the train.

J.P. Morgan

a highly successful banker who bought out Carnegie. With Carnegie's holdings and some others, he launched U.S Steel and made it the first billion dollar corporation.

Gustavus Swift

He was a meat king that used a trust to get wealthy. It showed that wealth was dominating the common wealth.

Phillip Armour

He was a meat king that used a trust to get wealthy. It showed that wealth was dominating the common wealth.

Charles Pillsbury

He was the founder of Pillsbury & Company.

John D. Rockefeller

He was the richest man who developed the trust and created Standard Oil Company. He was ruthless in the world of business and controlled the petroleum industry. He influenced other businessmen to use trusts in order to obtain wealth, and he was an example of how the new rich was taking over the place that old patricians once held.

Alexander Graham Bell

He was an American inventor who was responsible for developing the telephone. This greatly improved communications in the country.

William Graham Sumner

He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.

Charles Darwin

He was a British scientist who was most famous for developing his Theory of Evolution. Besides making a great milestone in the world of science, his theory had an effect on society, which created Social Darwinism.

On Origin of Species

This book by Charles Darwin explains his theory of evolution and natural selection. This made his theory open and accessible to the public, marked a milestone in scientific achievement, and influenced the development of Social Darwinism.

Social Darwinism

This was a belief held by many that stated that the rich were rich and the poor were poor due to natural selection in society. This was the basis of many people who promoted a laissez fairee style of economy.

Russell Conwell

He was a Revered and a staunch advocate of Social Darwinism. He helped the justification of the rich and the need to not help the poor in his "Acres of Diamonds" lecture.

Andrew Carnegie

a steel giant that got where he was by vertical integration. He pioneered vertical integration as a way to run a corporation, and was an anti-trust advocate as well as a philanthropist.

Acres of Diamonds

This was a lecture written by Russell Conwell that advocated Social Darwinism It justified the rich being rich and the poor being poor and, it called people not to help the poor since it was their fault, thus promoting a laissez faire ideal.

Gospel of Wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

William M. Tweed

Democratic boss of New York City in the 1860s; showed corruption in politics when stole $ millions

Old Immigrants

These were immigrants that came during the first phase of immigration (1840s) who were usually Irish and German. These people were second generation, which meant that they have assimilated into America, gotten into politics, and opened their own shops. Their position in government and hypocritical nature made them hostile to new immigrants, passing laws against them.

New Immigrants

These were immigrants that were recently arriving into America. These were unskilled laborers that filled the jobs no one else wanted.

Chinese Exclusion Act; 1882

This act permanently banned anyone from China to immigrant to the U.S. This was a display of how old immigrants used their status against new immigrants and the nativist feeling in America.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

This act banned any formations that would restrict trade, not distinguishing between bad and good trusts. The act was a hamper on worker unions, but it showed that the government was slowly moving away from laissez faire ideals.

United States v. E.C. Knight Co.

This was a case where the government sued E.C Knight Co. due a violation in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act since E.C. controlled 98% of the sugar refinement industry. The court ruled in favor of E.C. Knight, stating that manufacturing was not subject to the act. This made regulation more difficult.

Scab

a non-union worker who usually worked for low wages. They were used as strike breakers since they were not part of a union.

Yellow Dog Contract

an agreement some companies forced workers to take that forbade them from joining a union. This was a method used to limit the power of unions, thus hampering their development.

Scrip

temporary substitute for money, securities, or other valuable claims. Business enterprises and municipalities have at times, especially when short of cash, paid employees in scrip, and communities have facilitated trade by using it.; forced workers to become completely loyal to their companies

William Sylvis

Leader of the National Labor Union; which was the first national labor federation in the United States, lead to Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor

national labor union that was open to nearly all workers. It was a secret society. They were open to all, therefore more equal than others, but more importantly, it gave them a large population, which led them to gain an 8 hour day after many strikes.

Samuel Gompers

He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.

American Federation of Labor

a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.

Molly Maguries

They were a secret group of Irish-American coal minters that fought and protested the living and working conditions. Their violent acts led them to be removed, while damaging the reputation of unions.

Great Railroad Strike

A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Railroad roadhouse was torched. Their violent acts led them to be suppressed by the government, while damaging the reputation of unions.

Haymarket Riot; 1886

The riot took place in Chicago between rioters and the police. It ended when someone threw a bomb that killed dozens. The riot was suppressed, and in addition with the damaged reputation of unions, it also killed the Knights of Labor, who were seen as anarchists.

Homestead Strike

It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.

Henry Clay Frick

was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.

Eugene V. Debs

He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party.

IWW

revolutionary industrial union organized in Chicago in 1905 by delegates from the Western Federation of Mine; unionized the non-unionized

Pullman Strike

This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.

Solidarity Forever

This was one of the many rallying songs for unions. It helped rally people to Unions.

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