APUSH Unit 9

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Comstock Law, 1873

United States federal law that made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" — with contraceptive devices and information explicitly put in that category — materials through the mail An example of censorship in the United States. Also, this law later led to the court case banning contraceptive devices, the court ruling that banning them was unconstitutional. The other things in this law is still enforced today

National American Woman's Suffrage Association, 1890

American women's rights organization was established by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in May of 1890. This and other groups led to the nineteenth amendment: women's suffrage.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A social activist and a leading figure of the early women's rights movement Helped establish the National Woman's Suffrage Association

Carrie Chapman Catt

A women's suffrage leader, she was twice the president of the NAWSA She was one of the main people attributed to woman's suffrage.

Minor v. Happersatt, 1874

A United States Supreme Court case appealed from the Supreme Court of Missouri concerning the Missouri law which ordained "Every male citizen of the United States shall be entitled to vote." (a female wanted to vote) Decision of the supreme court case said that women cannot vote because the fourteenth amendment said that only men could.

Jane Addams

an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. She was also the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, and a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement.

Hull House

co-founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr who were soon joined by other volunteers called "residents," it was one of the first settlement houses in the U.S. and eventually grew into one of the largest, with facilities in 13 buildings At its beginning, its main purposes were to provide social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood, many of whom were recent immigrants. There were classes in literature, history, art, domestic activities such as sewing, and many other subjects, concerts free to everyone, free lectures on current issues, and clubs both for children and adults. Later, the settlement branched out and offered services to ameliorate some of the effects of poverty.

Walking Cities

compact cities and towns; an intermingling of residences and workplaces; a short journey to work for those employed in a variety of tasks; mixed patterns of land use; and the location of elite residences at the city centers Served as meeting places, open markets for buying and selling goods, and parade grounds for special occasions

Streetcar Cities

The separation between work and residence for the middle and upper classes was much more pronounced than in the walking city, as these groups increasingly fled the central cities for the suburbs Served as a living area for the more elite members of the American society.

Dumbbell Tenement

Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.

Chicago Fire

Was a conflagration that burned from Oct. 8-10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying several square miles in Chicago, Illinois. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th Century, the rebuilding that began almost immediately spurred Chicago's development into one of the most populous and economically important American cities. Led to the palmer house, this was the "first fireproof building." Also, the event showed the people's quick response in rebuilding Chicago.

Settlement House Movement

Starting in England, they were houses which connected the students of universities with their neighbors in slum cities. These houses helped education, savings, sports, and arts for people.

"Waving the Bloody Shirt"

It refers to the demagogic practice of politicians using sectionalist animosities of the American Civil War to gain election in the post bellum North from the 1860s to 1880s. Helped northerners get elected into office in post bellum years

Thomas Nast

A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians

Horace Greeley

An American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician He helped support reform movements and anti-slavery efforts through his New York Tribune newspaper

Stalwarts

A faction of the Republican party in the ends of the 1800s Supported the political machine and patronage. Conservatives who hated civil service reform.

Roscoe Conkling

A politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. Was highly against civil service reforms, it was thought that the killing of Garfield was done in Conkling's behest.

Half-Breeds

term of disparagement ginned-up by the Stalwarts, was applied to the moderate faction of the Republican Party They backed Hayes' lenient treatment of the South and supported moderate civil service reform. James G. Blaine of Maine was the leader of this group, but failed to win the party nomination in 1876 and 1880. James A. Garfield was also affiliated with the Half-Breeds.

James G. Blaine

A U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. He funded Bates college. He helped install the Blaine Amendments

Charles Guiteau

A U.S. lawyers and a stalwart. He killed Garfield and led to people thinking that Conkling killed Garfield

Pendleton Act, 1883

An 1883 United States federal law that established the United States Civil Service Commission, which placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called "spoils system." Drafted during the Chester A. Arthur administration, the Pendleton Act served as a response to President James Garfield's assassination by Charles J. Guiteau (a "disappointed office seeker").

Tenancy

An ownership interest in land in which a lessee or a tenant holds real property by some form of title from a lesser or landlord. Many Americans lived with this system in place (agriculturally). Many farmers became bankrupt under Tenancy.

Crop-lien system

Not having any money, they [Farming new freemen] could not buy land but instead worked a small portion of a large parcel owned by a single person. Many former slaves were tenants of the same landowner and each had their own section of farm to work on independently, hence the term "sharecropper." Sharecropping and over speculation were causes of the great depression and led to many farmers moving to California in hopes of finding a job

Deflation

a decrease in the general price level, over a period of time. Helped America after the Civil War and helped America back on its feet after the Great Depression

Oliver H. Kelley

considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry He built new foundation for American agriculture through the organization of the Grange.

The Grange

It was a farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages. The official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger movement was successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses

Farmer's Alliance

Was an organized agrarian economic movement among U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1889.

Colored Farmer's Alliance

Excluded on the basis of race from membership in the Southern Farmers' Alliance, the blacks formed a separate organization in Texas in 1886. The Colored Farmers' Alliance comprised both black farmers and farm workers. They were active in the publication of a weekly newspaper and a variety of educational programs. In 1891, a strike of cotton pickers was called, but coordination was poor and the strike failed. Also lost support when the populist party arose.

Munn v. Illinois, 1877

A United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads

Wabash case, 1886

was a United States Supreme Court case that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Limited States' rights

James Weaver

United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election His close race for presidency showed the rise of a third party.

Populist Party, 1892

The "People's Party," it flourished particularly among western farmers, based largely on its opposition to the gold standard. A Third party that had not existed for decades

Bimetallism

Is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver. The ratio between the two metals is fixed by law Helped McKinley win the presidency thanks to the gold standard.

Bland-Allison Act, 1878

A United States federal law enacted in response to the Fourth Coinage Act that demonetizing silver. It was an attempt to bring back silver because gold was the only metallic standard before this act

Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1890

Was enacted in 1890 as a United States federal law. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month It backfired because people exchanged their silver notes for gold dollars, depleting the governments gold reserves. Led to the panic of 1893

McKinley Tariff, 1890

Raised imports to 48.4% The tariff was detrimental to the American farmers who were already greatly in debt. This is because if America raises the tariff on foreign imports, so will foreign countries raise their tariffs on American goods. Due to the fact that most American Agricultural products are for exports, by increasing the tariff, the farmer's market for their goods become smaller, forcing them to sell their products at bankruptcy prices at home.

Wilson-Gorman Tariff, 1894

It lowered the McKinley Tariff Led to income tax

Jacob Coxey

A socialist American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. Supported and helped establish paper moneylead protest of unemployment from Panic of 1893

William Jennings Bryan

An American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States. Greatly supported and led the progressive movement and helped to enact the 18th amendment (prohibition).

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