state that possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries.
system of government where the monarch possesses complete power. kings claimed to rule by divine right.
system of managing government through departments run by appointed career officials.
system of government where all facets of culture are regulated by a ruler.
King Henry IV
1589-1610. first bourbon king. most beloved king in french history. rise to power ended french civil wars. began course to absolutism. politique. converted to catholicism to gain loyalty of paris. issued the edict of nantes. chief minister was duke of Sully.
annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices.
duke of Sully
chief minister to Henry IV. reforms enhanced power of monarchy. mercantilism. reduced royal debt. reformed tax system. oversaw improved transportation.
system of economics where that a nation should sell more goods to other nations than it buys.
King Louis XIII
1610-1643. relied on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu.
chief minister to Louis XIII. political genius who wanted to make the king supreme in france and france supreme in europe. set out to destroy the power of the nobles and the huguenots who were protected by the edict of nantes. strengthened france economically and appointed intendants.
french government agents who collected taxes and administered justice. against Habsburgs.
uprisings that began when Mazarin and Louis XIV attempted to increase royal revenues. had three results for the future. one, that the government would have to compromise with the bureaucrats and social elites. two, the french economy was disrupted. three, it had a traumatic effect on young Louis XIV.
prime minister of france to Louis XIV. worked to increase the power of france. despised because of his harsh policies. led to the fronde.
King Louis XIV
1643-1715. sun king. quintessential absolute ruler in european history. domesticated the nobles. believer in divine right. undisputed major power. affected by the fronde. fought four major wars. moved court to versailles. revoked the edict of nantes. used intendents. stated he was the state.
finance minister to Louis XIV. established mercantilism in france to increase revenue.
the revocation of the edict of nantes
1685. Louis XIV. stated that the french monarchy had never intended religious toleration to be permanent and that religious liberty was not a popular policy.
art and literature of the age of Louis XIV. subject matter was predominantly classical antiquity and glorification of Louis XIV.
war of devolution
1667-1668. Louis XIV. claimed the spanish netherlands as the unpaid dowry of his wife.
war against the dutch
1672-1678. Louis XIV. returned to get more dutch territory and to claim dutch commercial interests. fought against the dutch, holy roman empire, spain and brandenburg.
treaty of nijmegen
ended the war against the dutch. france gained another small part of the spanish netherlands. lost many valuable men.
the treaty of aix-la-chapelle
ended the war of devolution. france gained a small part of the spanish netherlands as a result.
war of the league of augsburg
1688-1697. Louis XIV. invaded strasbourg and other german border territories along the rhine. opposed by spain, dutch, sweden, holy roman empire and england.
the peace of ryswick
ended war of the league of augsburg. france retreated from most territories in return for peace. france retains alsace.
war of spanish succession
1702-1713. Louis XIV. spanish king designated the grandson of Louis as the spanish heir. Leopold Hapsburg thought his son should be the spanish heir. winner inherited spain, all possessions in europe and all colonies.
treaty of utrecht
ended the war of spanish succession. stalemate. allowed Philip to become the king of spain. forbade any combining of french and spanish holdings or thrones.
the decline of spain
declined because of unpractical and outdated economics, ineffective habsburg politics and idealistic social values.
system of government where power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers. power rests in the electorate.
King James I
1603-1625. believed in the divine right of kings or the stuart concept of absolutism. the house of commons disagreed with James I over how much control the monarch should have. the house of commons controlled the finances.
King Charles I
1625-1649. appeared sympathetic to catholicism. angered the puritans and opposed the protestant values of the house of commons. dissolved parliament. passed the triennial act. ruled during the english civil war.
english civil war
1642-1649. King Charles I. fought over whether sovereignty would remain with the king or with the parliament. cavaliers supported the king. roundheads opposed king. Cromwell led new model army. kingship was abolished. ended with the execution of Charles I.
1649-1660. separated two monarchical periods. first, Cromwell established a commonwealth/republican government. second, Cromwell established a military dictatorship. after his death, england returned to a civilian government. ready for a monarchy again.
1649-1653. wanted to create a constitutional government with full religious freedom for all faiths. dissolved parliament. undertook to rule england alone. attempted to force puritan ideals on the nation by authoritarian rule. dictatorship ended with his death.
King Charles II
1660-1685. passed the test act of 1673 to move toward anglican unity. made the CABAL to augment communication between the crown and the commons. agreed to secret pact with Louis XIV. england got money and in return recatholicized england, supported the french against the dutch and converted to catholicism.
King James II
1685-1688. revived absolutism by controlling the courts and suspending law at will. issued declaration of indulgence, declaring freedom of religion in england.
the glorious revolution
1688-1689. revolution in which James II, devoid of support in England, fled to France when threatened by William of Orange, the wife of his daughter. William and Mary then took the throne without incident. bloodless.
system of managing government where the leading ministers, who must have seats in and the support of a majority of the house of commons, formulate common policy and conduct the business of the nation.
dutch golden age
spanning across seventeenth century. religious toleration led to a stronger economy. dutch east and west india companies dominated over-seas trading. ruled by a confederation.
in the netherlands. handled matters of foreign affairs. did not possess sovereign authority since all issues had to be referred back to the local estates for approval.
system of government where the central government is weak and the states are strong.
in the netherlands. handled domestic affairs.
in the netherlands. appointed by the states general to carry out ceremonial functions. responsible for defense and order.
the revival of serfdom in eastern europe
lords in eastern europe revived serfdom to combat economic challenges. lords demanded that kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating the right of peasants to move freely.
in prussia. serfs were bound to lords from one generation to the next as well as to the land. this occurred when the rights of the peasants were very limited and the lords had most of the power.
austria during the thirty years war
austrian Habsburgs conquered the bohemian estates. took power from protestant nobles and gave it to Catholic Nobles.
representative body of the different estates, or legal orders, in bohemia. dominated by protestant czech nobility.
1637-1657. centralized government. strenthened Habsburg holdings. established a standing army. wanted to conquer the plains of hungary. absolutist.
title used by muslim rulers in the ottoman empire. sovereign of his domain. holder of power. for the peasants.
ottoman empire during the seventeenth century
militaristic. mostly islamic. against the Habsburgs, often fighting over land. ruled by a sultan. governed by a bureaucracy with christian slaves from the balkans. tolerant of religion. attracted merchants.
1520-1566. the magnificent. led the ottomons in becoming the most powerful empire in the world.
Charles VI. stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided. passed intact to a single heir, meaning his daughter inherited the throne. turkish army and hungarian nobility fought this declaration.
system of managing government where the ottoman empire was divided by religion. leaders of each millet supported the sultan in exchange for power over their millet.
in brandenburg-prussia. powerful nobility and landowners. forced to share power with Frederick William in order to have stability, peace and military defense.
the Cromwell sandwich
James I. Charles I. Oliver Cromwell. Charles II. James II.
1620-1688. elector of brandenburg. rebuilt his domain after destruction during the thirty year war.
King Frederick I
1688-1713. the ostentatious. elector who was made the first king of prussia.
Frederick William I
1713-1740. the soldiers king. truly established prussian absolutism. formed the best army in europe. implemented strict military values to all society. army and military life was intensely emotional. allowed prussia and then prussianized germany to win the crucial military battles.
order of prussian kings
Frederick William. King Frederick I. Frederick William I.
official religion of russia. rejected the pope. otherwise the same as roman catholicism.
russia. powerful landowning nobles.
the two hundred year rule of the mongal khan over eastern slavs. prelude to the rise of absolutist.
1462-1505. autocrat, absolutist and tsar. consolidated power around moscow. defeated all the other princes.
1533-1584. the terrible. increased pressure on the peasants to pay for his wars. led to a breakdown of the muscovite state.
system of government where unlimited authority is held by one individual.
Peter the Great
1682-1725. wanted to augment military. obsessed with western culture. created western schools to train army. modernized the russian army. first to attach explanations to his decisions.
europe in the seventeenth century. elaborate decorative art and architecture that flourished.
Peter the Great. capital city of russia. represented the new western culture of russia. despised because of the taxes it required to be constructed.
peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in russia. combined agriculture with military conquests. spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.
royal family of prussia. ruled the german territory of brandenburg. acquired lands within the holy roman empire from inheritance. protestant.
royal family of the holy roman empire. ruled Austria.
petition of right
1628. Charles I. parliament attempted to bribe king with taxes in return for accepting the rights of the parliament. these rights included the right to tax, habeas corpus, no quartering and no martial law in peacetime.
1640. Charles I. after failure of two month short parliament. parliament demanded more rights. certain high leaders be tried. Laud eventually executed. star chamber abolished. parliament could not be dissolved without its consent. called every three years.
battle of naseby
final major battle of the english civil war. scottish army assisted Cromwell. division resulted between presbyterians in parliament and soldiers who were independent.
removed all non-puritans and presbyterians from parliament.
1649-1653. during interregnum. a republic. abolished monarch and house of lords.
1653-1659. during interregnum. Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector. dictatorship.
1660-1688. parliament reelected according to old franchise. anglicans back in power.
the clarendon code
1661. anglicans excluded dissenters, or puritans, from politics. and other non-conformists.
declaration of indulgence
1672. Charles II. granted free worship to non-conformist protestants. parliament thought it was a back-door catholic move.
test act of 1673
1673. all officeholders must take communion in anglican church.
act of indulgence
James II. religious tolerance for all. no mention of anglican church remaining state religion. one of the grievances against him in glorious revolution.
habeas corpus act
1679. no arbitrary arrest and speedy trial.
supported the king during the restoration in the parliament. nobles.
did not support the king during the restoration in the parliament. middle-class, merchants and high aristocracy. origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule.
act of toleration
granted religious freedom to all except catholics, jews, and unitarians.
William of Orange and Mary
secured protestantism in england after the glorious revolution.
bill of rights
1689. constitutional monarchy. british constitution. consisted of habeas corpus act, petition of right and bill of rights.
act of settlement
1701. only anglican could succeed to the english throne.
two treatises on government
John Locke. stated that humans are entitled to the right to life, liberty and property. philosophical argument for supremacy of parliament. not a democratic document.
aging eastern european nations
HOP. holy roman empire. ottoman empire. poland.
emerging eastern european nations
RAP. russia. austria. prussia.
supporters of Charles I during the English civil war.
supporters of Oliver Cromwell during the English civil war. puritans.