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chemistry

the study of composition in structure, properties, and the properties of matter

atom

the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of an element

mole

unit of measurment; 6.022*10^23

avagadro's number

1 mole

molar mass

mass of a mole

aufbau principle

place electrons from the lowest energy to the highest

pauli exclusion principle

each electron in an atom MUST have a unique set of quantum numbers

hunds rule

place 1 electron in each orbital of equal energy before you pair them.

octet rule

atoms will gain, lose, or share valence electrons to make a full octet

periodic law

the repeating patternof chemical and physical properties of elements. when the elements are arranged according to increasing atomic number

atomic radii

half the distance between nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element in the solid crystal state.

ist ionization energy

energy required to move an electron from 1 mole of neutral gassious atoms

electron affinity

the energy change when you add 1 mole of electrons to 1 mole of neutral atoms

electronegativity

the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond

chemical bond

a mutual attraction between two atoms

ionic bond

when electrons are transferred

covalent bond

share e- (not always equally)

non-polar covalent

share electrons equally

polar covalent

dont share electrons equally

quantitative

observation with numbers

qualitative

observation without numbers

length

meter (m)

mass

kilogram (kg)

time

second (s)

volume

cL (m^3)

Density

g/mL

same number of electrons

why do elements in groups have similiar properties?

resonance

double bonds

physical change

solid, liquid, gas

chemical change

identity

chemical and physical changes

determined by changing the identity

metals

conduct electricity, luster, malleable, high melting point, ductile (left of staircase)

nonmetals

non luster, non malleable, not good conductors, not ductile (right of staircase)

metalloids

charactheristics like both metals and nonmetals. (along staircase)

conservation of mass

matter cant be created or destroyed; the mass of reactants is equal to the mass of the product

definite proportions

compound always has the same proportion by mass of its elements

principle quantum number

gives the energy level of electron

angular momentum

tells shape of orbital

shapes of orbitals

sphere, peanut, double peanut, flower

magnetic quantum number

tells the orientation of the orbital

spin quantum number

tells the spin of the electron (direction of spin)

density

=mass/volume

6.022*10^23

1 mole

6.626*10^-34 Js

plancks constant

energy

=hv

speed of light (c)

=lambda*nu

homogeneous

unifrom solution

heterogeneous

non uniform solution

pure substance

cant be separated physically

element (pure substance)

cant break smaller into substance

compound (pure substance)

can be broken down (chemically) -same identity -set definite compostition

pure substance

have the same properties and a constant composition

accuracy

how close it is to the correct value

precision

how close your answers are to each other

atomic number

the number of protons in an atom

isotopes

atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons

mass number

the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

polarity

A relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies

hypothesis

a statement that can be tested experimentally

thomson

discovered the electron and the proton

chadwick

discovered the neutron

rutherford

discoverd the nucleus

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