MGT 3320 Exam 3

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Diversity always involves
a. employee's individual differences.
b. a quota system.
c. mandatory affirmative action plans.
d. legal constraints.
e. similarities in product offerings.

a. employee's individual differences.

Which of the following is one of the factors that has contributed to increased workforce diversity in the United States?
a. Increased entry into the workforce of women and minorities
b. Increased immigration into the United States
c. Organizations becoming aware of the competitive advantages of diversity
d. Legislation and legal actions
e. All of these

e. All of these

Looking around the room at a recent committee meeting, Eileen noticed that most of the participants were white males, although they differed in their national origin, their age, their religion, and their lifestyle. Eileen's committee is
a. completely diverse.
b. not at all diverse.
c. exactly in the middle of the diversity continuum.
d. somewhat diverse, but on the low end of the continuum.
e. somewhat diverse, but on the high end of the continuum.

d. somewhat diverse, but on the low end of the continuum.

Which of the following kinds of treatments play a role in diversity management?
a. Preferential treatment
b. Equal treatment
c. Identical treatment
d. Equitable treatment
e. Differential treatment

d. Equitable treatment

John, a corporate accountant in a large computer manufacturing firm, celebrates Cinco de Mayo with his family every year because of his
a. age.
b. race.
c. ethnicity.
d. gender.
e. religion.

c. ethnicity.

Which of the following BEST describes the principle of equitable treatment?
a. All persons should be treated the same regardless of their differences.
b. All persons should be treated equally but differently because of their differences.
c. All persons should be treated the same because of their differences.
d. All persons should be treated differently even if they are the same.
e. Not all persons should be treated the same, even if they are the same.

b. All persons should be treated equally but differently because of their differences.

Which law requires employers to treat people of different religions and national origins fairly in the workplace?
a. Richard Osborn Act
b. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
c. The Americans with Disabilities Act
d. Sarbanes-Oxley Act
e. Fair Credit Reporting Act

b. The Civil Rights Act of 1964

For which of the following characteristics must employers make reasonable accommodations?
a. Race
b. National origin
c. Gender
d. Age
e. Disability

e. Disability

Which of the following is a major dimension of diversity?
a. Sexual preference
b. Personality
c. Political outlook
d. Gender
e. Management style

d. Gender

The average age of the U.S. workforce is
a. increasing because of higher legal age limits for mandatory retirement.
b. increasing because of immigration of older workers from other countries.
c. increasing because more minorities are becoming part of the workforce.
d. decreasing because of earlier retirement ages.
e. decreasing because of immigration of younger workers from other countries.

a. increasing because of higher legal age limits for mandatory retirement.

Which of the following is NOT true about older workers?
a. Older workers tend to be more stable.
b. Accident rates are lower for older workers.
c. Older workers require higher levels of insurance coverage and medical benefits.
d. Older workers can make greater contributions to productivity.
e. Older workers tend to have more experience.

b. Accident rates are lower for older workers.

Pam has been a highly valued production manager for a national grocery store chain for the last ten years, but she has been unable to move into the top management jobs, positions that are all held by men. What is Pam likely facing?
a. Poor evaluations
b. Career tracking
c. Reverse discrimination
d. Glass ceiling
e. Mother syndrome

d. Glass ceiling

Which of the following traits represent key components of diversity?
a. Sexual orientation
b. Special dietary preferences
c. Political ideology
d. Dual-career couples
e. All of these

e. All of these

The creativity argument suggests that more diverse organizations will be more competitive because they will
a. be better able to understand different market segments.
b. be characterized by multiple perspectives and ways of thinking.
c. be better able to respond to changes in environment.
d. become known among women and minorities as good places to work.
e. have higher levels of productivity and lower levels of turnover and absenteeism.

b. be characterized by multiple perspectives and ways of thinking.

Andy, a director of human resource management with a restaurant firm says, "Diversity in our organization results in higher job performance and lower turnover." Andy is using which argument to justify how diversity contributes to competitiveness?
a. The resource acquisition argument
b. The problem-solving argument
c. The cost argument
d. The creativity argument
e. The systems flexibility argument

c. The cost argument

Intel attends recruiting events such as a Hispanic chamber of commerce convention in order to attract diverse applicants. At these events, Intel's minority workers explain Intel's support for diversity. Thus, Intel is able to easily recruit talented minority employees. Which argument for diversity is demonstrated in Intel's actions?
a. The systems flexibility argument
b. The problem-solving argument
c. The cost argument
d. The marketing argument
e. The resource acquisition argument

e. The resource acquisition argument

The problem-solving argument suggests that more diverse organizations will be more competitive because they will
a. be better able to understand different market segments.
b. have a larger pool of unique information.
c. be better able to respond to changes in its environment.
d. become known among women and minorities as good places to work.
e. have higher levels of productivity and lower levels of turnover and absenteeism.

b. have a larger pool of unique information.

The systems flexibility argument suggests that more diverse organizations will be more competitive because they will
a. be better able to understand different market segments.
b. be characterized by multiple perspectives and ways of thinking.
c. be better able to respond to changes in environment.
d. become known among women and minorities as good places to work.
e. have higher levels of productivity and lower levels of turnover and absenteeism.

c. be better able to respond to changes in environment.

Which of the following is the BEST definition of empathy?
a. Understanding that differences exist among people
b. Tolerating behavior of others even though you do not understand it
c. Openly discussing problems that you have with others
d. Understanding the perspectives of others who are different
e. Treating people fairly and equitably

d. Understanding the perspectives of others who are different

Sometimes managers must realize that individual differences cause employees to act in very different ways, which suggests that workers cannot all be treated similarly. Which of the following is the BEST individual strategy for dealing with this issue?
a. Understanding
b. Communication
c. Empathy
d. Tolerance
e. Training

a. Understanding

Sung says, "My employer assigns a mentor to each new hire. Employees can discuss racial or sexual harassment issues with the mentor in confidentiality. If there is any wrongdoing, my employer's rules require a thorough investigation." Sung's employer is using which organizational strategy for dealing with diversity?
a. Organizational policies
b. Diversity training
c. Organizational practices
d. Individual differences
e. Organization culture

a. Organizational policies

Olive Garden restaurants actively work to recruit diverse applicants, accommodate diverse employees through flexible schedules and other means, and include diverse employees in decisions at every level of the organization. Which organizational strategy for dealing with diversity is shown in these actions by Olive Garden?
a. Organizational policies
b. Diversity training
c. Organizational practices
d. Individual differences
e. Organization culture

c. Organizational practices

Which of the following BEST represents a multicultural organization?
a. A corporation that does business in many different countries
b. A company that hires people of all races
c. An organization where the top managers are all female
d. A business that does not discriminate in providing services to its customers
e. A firm that capitalizes on diversity and has few diversity problems

e. A firm that capitalizes on diversity and has few diversity problems

A company has a workforce that is 40 percent ethnic minority and 60 percent white. Their top managers are made up of 10 percent minority personnel. The local community is composed 40 percent of people from minorities. Which of the criteria for a multicultural organization is this company violating?
a. Pluralism
b. Low levels of internal conflict
c. Full integration of the informal network
d. Absence of discrimination
e. Full structural integration

e. Full structural integration

At an elementary school, administrators provide a class that teaches individuals how to appreciate individual differences in the organization. These efforts are known as ____ training.
a. diversity
b. conflict
c. integration
d. informal network
e. structure

a. diversity

When every group in a company strives to understand other groups of people, then there is most likely ____ in the company.
a. pluralism
b. full structural integration
c. an absence of prejudice and discrimination
d. low levels of intergroup conflict
e. increased bias

a. pluralism

When a company's employees reflect the demographic makeup of the external labor market, then there is most likely ____ in the company.
a. pluralism
b. full structural integration
c. an absence of prejudice and discrimination
d. low levels of intergroup conflict
e. increased bias

b. full structural integration

When employees in a company tolerate and empathize with other coworkers, then there is most likely ____ in the company.
a. pluralism
b. full structural integration
c. an absence of prejudice and discrimination
d. low levels of intergroup conflict
e. increased bias

d. low levels of intergroup conflict

The process by which a company adapts to its environment is called
a. organizational pluralism
b. organizational conflict
c. organizational integration
d. organizational synergy
e. organizational learning

e. organizational learning

Employees who add value to the firm because of their expertise, background, or training are called ____ workers.
a. knowledge
b. conflict
c. integration
d. network
e. structural

a. knowledge

Refer to Scenario 8.1. Ray is concerned that if he hires female managers, they may not be given opportunities to advance to top management positions in the firm. Ray is concerned about
a. racial discrimination.
b. accommodations that might be legally required.
c. the glass ceiling.
d. diversity training.
e. communication barriers.

c. the glass ceiling.

Refer to Scenario 8.1. If Ray wants to hire the ethnic group that is expected to increase by the greatest percentage of the U.S. workforce over the next decade, he would hire more
a. Hispanics.
b. African Americans.
c. whites.
d. Asians.
e. Native Americans.

a. Hispanics.

Refer to Scenario 8.1. Which of the following arguments can Ray NOT use for justifying the contribution of diversity to competitiveness?
a. Diversity leads to higher levels of productivity and lower levels of absenteeism.
b. Diversity creates a better understanding of different market segments and how to market products to them.
c. Diversity is likely to generate new ideas and better ways of doing things.
d. Diversity creates a larger pool of unique information that can be brought to bear on problems.
e. Diversity narrows the perspective of organizations, permitting them to make decisions more quickly.

e. Diversity narrows the perspective of organizations, permitting them to make decisions more quickly.

Refer to Scenario 8.1. Ray understands that an increase in diversity will require certain individual strategies for dealing with multiculturalism. Which of the following is NOT such a strategy?
a. Understanding
b. Separation
c. Empathy
d. Tolerance
e. Communication

b. Separation

Refer to Scenario 8.1. Ray wants to find a good example of an organization that is truly multicultural. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of such an organization?
a. Pluralism
b. Low levels of internal conflict
c. No barriers to entry and participation in any organizational activity
d. Organizational roles identified with particular cultural groups
e. The diversity of the organization accurately reflecting its market

d. Organizational roles identified with particular cultural groups

The essence of EEO legislation encourages companies to recognize employees' individual differences as long as people are treated fairly.

T

The average age of the workforce in the United States is actually decreasing despite the large numbers of baby boomers who are remaining in the labor market.

F

The percentage of whites in the workforce is increasing, along with the increasing percentage of Hispanics.

F

One of the main reasons for the existence of the glass ceiling is the reluctance on the part of some women to promote women into management positions.

F

The problem-solving argument for diversity suggests that an increased pool of information is achieved when companies hire employees with different individual characteristics.

T

The marketing argument assumes that diverse companies will have a better understanding of their different market segments.

T

Some evidence suggests that, despite generational differences, there tends to be little conflict between older and younger women in the workplace.

F

The major policy through which a company can present its position on diversity is the mission statement.

T

Some organizations provide language training as a way to reinforce diversity efforts.

T

While immigration and a living wage are key social issues that companies face, prison labor is considered to be more of a legal issue.

F

____ refers to all of the pay and benefits provided to employees for the completion of work.
a. Salary
b. Pay substructure
c. Total compensation
d. Fair labor standards
e. Incentives

c. Total compensation

Which of the following employee behavioral outcomes is MOST likely under conditions of perceived internal inequity as compared to external inequity?
a. Lower morale
b. Higher conflict
c. Lower satisfaction
d. Lower motivation
e. All of these

e. All of these

Jorge, a supervisor for a large luxury hotel, compared his salary to other supervisors in the same organization. He found that his base pay was about 25 percent less than other individuals in similar supervisory jobs. Jorge is experiencing
a. internal inequity.
b. lateral inequity.
c. position inequity.
d. external inequity.
e. compensation inequity.

a. internal inequity.

Information used to assess external equity is likely collected with
a. pay surveys.
b. benefits administrators.
c. compensation calculators.
d. random telephone interviews.
e. none of these.

a. pay surveys.

____ occurs when a company indicates to employees the importance of certain behaviors by paying for such behaviors.
a. Supporting
b. Suggesting
c. Spiraling
d. Benchmarking
e. Signaling

e. Signaling

In general, salaries are paid to
a. professionals.
b. executives.
c. line workers.
d. all of these.
e. both professionals and executives.

e. both professionals and executives.

A laborer who is responsible for landscaping a local golf course likely receives
a. a salary.
b. a wage.
c. broad incentive pay.
d. no overtime.
e. a pension but no worker's comp.

b. a wage.

Which of the following would be considered a DISADVANTAGE of the use of above-market compensation?
a. It may encourage voluntary turnover.
b. It is less costly to the organization.
c. It may create a culture of competitive superiority.
d. It may not attract the highest-quality employees.
e. It may encourage a sense of entitlement among employees.

e. It may encourage a sense of entitlement among employees.

Organizations are MOST likely to be able to pay below-market compensation rates in an area with
a. high unemployment.
b. high cost of living.
c. high wage levels.
d. high labor costs.
e. highly skilled workers.

a. high unemployment.

One of the largest consulting firms in the world prefers to hire many entry-level consultants and then retain only about 10 percent by the third year. This strategy allows them to become acquainted with many workers and keep only the best. On the basis of this strategy, the firm pays below-market salaries. Which of the following is NOT a likely outcome of paying below-market rates?
a. It may encourage voluntary turnover.
b. It is less costly to the organization.
c. It may create a culture of competitive superiority.
d. It may not attract the highest-quality employees.
e. It may lead to feelings of resentment among employees.

c. It may create a culture of competitive superiority.

Which of the following is NOT a likely factor in determining an organization's compensation strategy?
a. The organization's ability to pay
b. The organization's legal context
c. Influence of unions
d. Location of the organization
e. The organization's job classification system

e. The organization's job classification system

The National Association for Law Placement (NALP) gathers and presents information about average compensation for attorneys, including data specific to regions, specializations, years of experience, and size of the firm. The NALP is creating
a. a job evaluation.
b. a pay survey.
c. pay compression.
d. external equity.
e. a pay structure.

b. a pay survey.

What is the general method used to determine the relative value or worth of jobs to an organization?
a. Job analysis
b. Comparable worth
c. Job evaluation
d. Compensable factors
e. Pay compression

c. Job evaluation

The U.S. postal system utilizes different job grades to pay employees, which is part of a
a. job ranking system
b. classification system
c. regression-based system
d. factor comparison method
e. No method

b. classification system

The job evaluation system that results in a number of job grades is called
a. job ranking.
b. the classification system.
c. the point system.
d. the factor comparison method.
e. job analysis.

b. the classification system.

Which job evaluation method identifies a job's various compensable factors for which the organization is willing to provide compensation?
a. Job ranking
b. Classification system
c. Point system
d. Job analysis
e. Comparable worth

c. Point system

An aspect of a job for which an organization is willing to provide compensation is called a
a. comparable worth issue.
b. pay grade.
c. job class.
d. compensable factor.
e. job evaluation.

d. compensable factor.

Which job evaluation method assesses jobs in a factor-related manner?
a. Point system
b. Factor comparison method
c. Job ranking
d. Classification system
e. Regression-based system

b. Factor comparison method

Which of the following would NOT be considered an argument in favor of knowledge-based pay?
a. Employees focus on growth and the accumulation of new knowledge.
b. The organization will gain flexibility.
c. The organization will develop a more knowledgeable workforce.
d. Assessing what a person knows is much easier than assessing what the person does.
e. Employees are paid for what they are worth to the company.

d. Assessing what a person knows is much easier than assessing what the person does.

While performing a job evaluation for a nursing home, Brad compared two jobs to a benchmark job. He found that the job of nurses' aide required a high level of physical effort, a moderate level of responsibility, and a low level of skill. By comparison, the job of occupational therapist had a low level of physical effort, but a high level of both responsibility and skill. Therefore, occupational therapists are paid more. Brad is using the ____ job evaluation technique.
a. job- ranking
b. classification system
c. regression-based system
d. job analysis
e. factor comparison

e. factor comparison

How does the United States rank in terms of the cost of benefits relative to that of other countries around the globe?
a. Much higher
b. A small percentage higher
c. About the same
d. Lower
e. Costs cannot be compared across countries.

d. Lower

When is pay compression MOST likely to develop?
a. When employee skill levels increase faster than managerial skill levels
b. When the market rate for starting salaries increases faster than organizations can give raises to existing employees
c. When an organization's internal resources increase faster than it is able to hire new employees
d. When the organization can provide monetary rewards more easily than intangible benefits
e. When existing employees make more than new entrants in the organization

b. When the market rate for starting salaries increases faster than organizations can give raises to existing employees

When Piccadilly Cafeterias filed for bankruptcy protection in the fall of 2003, its pension fund did not have enough assets to cover expected future payments. Which law ensures that retirees will receive their pensions as promised?
a. Tax Reform Act of 1986
b. Tax Reform Act of 1997
c. ERISA
d. FMLA
e. Economic Recovery Tax Act

c. ERISA

Which mandated employee benefit is designed to provide a basic subsistence payment to employees between jobs?
a. Unemployment insurance
b. Social security
c. Workers' compensation
d. Medical insurance
e. Accidental death and dismemberment insurance

a. Unemployment insurance

Which mandated type of insurance covers individuals who suffer a job-related illness or accident?
a. Unemployment insurance
b. Social security
c. Workers' compensation
d. Health insurance
e. Accidental death and dismemberment insurance

c. Workers' compensation

Which of the following is NOT a mandated benefit?
a. workers' compensation
b. social security
c. unemployment insurance
d. private pension plan
e. all of these benefits are mandated

d. private pension plan

Which of the following is NOT a nonmandated benefit?
a. paid time off
b. workers' compensation
c. health insurance
d. defined benefit plan
e. defined contribution plan

b. workers' compensation

A special program that helps prevent employee sickness is called a(n)
a. defined contribution plan
b. employee assistance plan
c. wellness program
d. defined benefit plan
e. workers' compensation

c. wellness program

A special program that helps employees with drug or alcohol problems is called a(n)
a. cafeteria-style benefits plan
b. employee assistance plan
c. wellness program
d. defined benefit plan
e. workers' compensation

b. employee assistance plan

A program that allows employees to select the benefits they want is called a(n)
a. cafeteria-style benefits plan
b. employee assistance plan
c. wellness program
d. defined benefit plan
e. workers' compensation

a. cafeteria-style benefits plan

Refer to Scenario 9.1. Chocolatta University administrators justify the high costs of its benefits programs by espousing which particular theory?
a. Equity theory
b. Efficiency wage theory
c. Motivational theory
d. Expectancy theory
e. Reinforcement theory

b. Efficiency wage theory

Refer to Scenario 9.1. Which of the following is a benefit that Ms. Almond may NOT legally drop from Chocolatta's benefits package?
a. Health insurance
b. Employee assistance program
c. Unemployment insurance
d. Life insurance
e. Vacation pay

c. Unemployment insurance

Refer to Scenario 9.1. In the midst of all this activity, Professor Nestlé severely burned himself while demonstrating in class the art of the flaming dessert. He will therefore be away from work and recuperating for three to six months. What benefit will help Professor Nestlé pay his bills while he is out of commission?
a. Unemployment insurance
b. Health maintenance organization
c. Social security
d. Elder care
e. Workers' compensation

e. Workers' compensation

Refer to Scenario 9.1. Ms. Almond is considering one cost-cutting option, in which employees are asked to make a small co-payment for each doctor's or dentist's visit. What is this called?
a. Cafeteria-style benefits
b. Coordination of benefits
c. Defined benefits
d. Sharing costs
e. Health maintenance organization

d. Sharing costs

Refer to Scenario 9.1. Regardless of benefit reductions due to budget setbacks, Ms. Almond feels strongly that Chocolatta should continue to provide help for faculty and staff with recurring chocolate cravings. Otherwise, classroom materials tend to disappear, and employees get severe sugar headaches. Which type of benefit would this be classified as?
a. Employee assistance plan
b. Life-cycle plan
c. Workers' compensation
d. Health maintenance plan
e. Employee wellness plan

a. Employee assistance plan

Internal equity involves comparisons to employees working in similar jobs in other companies.

F

The fundamental purpose of compensation is to provide an adequate reward system for employees so that they feel valued.

T

Under Equal Pay Act of 1962, workers must be paid the same money that other employees earn working in similar jobs in other companies.

F

Wages are paid to employees based on the time they function in a particular job.

T

A maturity curve is a schedule specifying the amount of annual increase a person will receive.

T

The downside to above-market compensation levels is increased employee absenteeism and turnover.

F

The outcome of a point system job classification structure is the grading of jobs.

F

The point system utilizes compensable factors to evaluate the importance of jobs.

T

Skill-based pay plans are related mostly to hourly workers.

T

Executive compensation is usually based on salary and incentive pay.

T

Andy, a regional manager for an office supply retail company, must formally evaluate each one of his immediate employees every year. This process is known as
a. benchmarking.
b. feedback interview.
c. 360-degree feedback.
d. discipline documentation.
e. performance appraisal.

e. performance appraisal.

Which of the following was NOT given as a reason for the importance of performance appraisal?
a. It helps managers assess the quality of their recruitment and selection activities.
b. It provides documentation that an organization's promotion and reward allocation activities are nondiscriminatory.
c. It plays a large role in allocation of profit-sharing rewards to employees.
d. It provides useful input into an organization's human resource planning process.
e. It provides feedback to employees, which may enhance their motivation and development.

c. It plays a large role in allocation of profit-sharing rewards to employees.

Which of the following is one of the different terms for performance appraisal?
a. performance evaluation
b. performance review
c. employee appraisal
d. employee evaluation
e. all of these are different terms for performance appraisal

e. all of these are different terms for performance appraisal

What should be considered the ultimate goal of performance appraisal?
a. To provide performance information in a useful form
b. To provide information about an individual's performance on all relevant dimensions
c. To be able to improve performance on the job
d. To document employment-related decisions based on performance
e. To determine equitable rewards

c. To be able to improve performance on the job

Which of the following is NOT considered one of the responsibilities of the organization in the performance appraisal process?
a. To develop the general performance appraisal process
b. To determine the timing of the performance appraisals
c. To make clear and specific performance standards available to managers
d. To have the ratee express a clear, unbiased view of his or her performance
e. To communicate performance standards to employees

d. To have the ratee express a clear, unbiased view of his or her performance

The role of the rater in the performance appraisal process includes all of the following EXCEPT
a. helping to develop clear performance standards.
b. collecting information about employee performance behaviors.
c. learning organizational performance standards.
d. requiring the ratee to gain an understanding of how his or her behavior affects performance.
e. preparing the employee to work at desired levels.

d. requiring the ratee to gain an understanding of how his or her behavior affects performance.

Which of the following factors could impact a supervisor's motivation, rather than ability, to provide a meaningful performance appraisal?
a. Inadequate job knowledge
b. Favoritism toward specific workers
c. Inadequate opportunity to observe employee performance
d. Changing technology, which may impact the supervisor's understanding of job tasks the employee is required to perform
e. The supervisor's being promoted from a different functional area of the organization

b. Favoritism toward specific workers

____ are the most frequently utilized source of information in the appraisal process.
a. Supervisors
b. Peers
c. Subordinates
d. Customers
e. Upper managers

a. Supervisors

360-degree feedback utilizes information collected from
a. customers.
b. employees.
c. supervisors.
d. subordinates.
e. all of these.

e. all of these.

A ____ method of performance appraisal involves directly assessing each employee next to other employees.
a. paired comparison
b. 360-degree
c. BARS
d. rating
e. graphic rating scale

a. paired comparison

Which method of performance appraisal involves grouping employees into frequencies of performance evaluations?
a. Ranking
b. Paired comparison
c. Forced distribution
d. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
e. Critical incident

c. Forced distribution

Supervisor Katy is establishing a list of the best to worst performers in the department. Which performance appraisal method is Katy utilizing?
a. Paired comparison
b. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
c. Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
d. Forced distribution
e. Simple ranking

e. Simple ranking

Which of the following is NOT a potential problem associated with the use of graphic rating scales in the performance appraisal process?
a. Attribution of too much objectivity to results
b. Leniency or severity error
c. The number of included performance dimensions must be restricted to a few
d. Halo error
e. Range restriction

c. The number of included performance dimensions must be restricted to a few

Which type of performance appraisal rating method focuses on particularly good or bad performance?
a. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
b. Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
c. Management By Objective (MBO)
d. Critical incident method
e. Graphic rating scale

d. Critical incident method

Which type of performance appraisal rating method is particularly reliable because examples of performance are provided in the categories of evaluation?
a. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
b. Paired comparison method
c. Management By Objective (MBO)
d. Critical incident method
e. Graphic rating scale

a. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)

The performance appraisal of a restaurant includes sections that require employees and managers to develop goals for the next rating period. This restaurant is apparently using which performance appraisal method?
a. 360-degree feedback
b. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
c. Simple ranking
d. Management by Objective (MBO)
e. Critical incident

d. Management by Objective (MBO)

The following item appears on a student evaluation form, to assess a student's preparation outside of class. What type of performance appraisal is represented by this example?
1 = Often unprepared when called on. Frequent late assignments.
2 = Sometimes unprepared when called on. Hands in 2-3 assignments late.
3 = Unprepared on occasion, but not often. Hands in 2 or fewer late assignments.
4 = Usually well-prepared when called on, but may be unprepared on 1-2 occasions. All assignments handed in on time.
5 = Always prepared when called on. Hands in every assignment early or on time.

a. Management by Objective (MBO)
b. Critical incident
c. Simple ranking
d. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
e. 360-degree feedback

d. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)

At Lorenzo's workplace, the performance appraisal process includes measurements of organizational citizenship behaviors, such as volunteering for unpleasant tasks and helping new employees socialize into the work team. Lorenzo's employer is
a. enforcing job requirements.
b. using inappropriate information.
c. committing a halo error.
d. relying on a ranking method.
e. rating contextual performance.

e. rating contextual performance.

When a rater compares people against one another instead of using a set standard, which type of error is the rater exhibiting?
a. Projection
b. Halo
c. Horns
d. Contrast
e. Distributional

a. Projection

When a rater tends to use only one part of a rating scale, this is known as
a. distributional error.
b. contrast error.
c. halo error.
d. horns error.
e. projection error.

a. distributional error.

Which career stage may involve individuals' viewing work as less important and nonwork activities as more important?
a. Maintenance
b. Disengagement
c. Establishment
d. Exploration
e. Trial

b. Disengagement

What is the final step in the career planning process?
a. Individual assessment
b. Career counseling
c. Exploration
d. Communication
e. Trial

b. Career counseling

What mechanism in the career planning process is designed to align the organization's and individual's expectations of the individual's role and career prospects within the organization?
a. Individual assessment
b. Specification of career paths
c. Performance management
d. Communication
e. Career counseling

e. Career counseling

All of the following would place limitations on the effectiveness of career planning EXCEPT
a. individuals may find new opportunities outside the employing organization at unexpected times.
b. the organization has little flexibility in altering the career paths it predicts for its employees over time.
c. the organization's human resource needs can change over time.
d. unanticipated mergers and acquisitions can change career opportunities.
e. people can experience changes in interests or priorities.

b. the organization has little flexibility in altering the career paths it predicts for its employees over time.

Which of the following is NOT a true statement regarding the individual perspectives on careers?
a. Individuals who closely monitor their careers understand the reasons for success and failure.
b. An individual's perception of work success or failure has an important impact on his or her self image.
c. Individuals can rely on their employer to manage their careers.
d. Individuals who take responsibility for their careers are prepared to deal with career setbacks.
e. Individuals directly experience the impact of career events.

c. Individuals can rely on their employer to manage their careers.

Which career stage may involves individuals' analysis of their own competences and skills.
a. Maintenance
b. Individual assessment
c. Establishment
d. Exploration
e. Trial

b. Individual assessment

What is the first step in the career planning process?
a. Individual assessment
b. Career counseling
c. Exploration
d. Communication
e. Trial

a. Individual assessment

The type of error that involves giving low ratings to all employees by using unrealistically high standards is called:
a. central tendency
b. halo error
c. horns error
d. leniency
e. severity

e. severity

The type of error that involves giving average ratings to all employees is called:
a. central tendency
b. halo error
c. horns error
d. leniency
e. severity

a. central tendency

The type of error that involves giving low ratings to an employee based on one performance dimension is called:
a. central tendency
b. halo error
c. horns error
d. leniency
e. severity

c. horns error

Refer to Scenario 10.1. Ellen, representing Tent-Stations' human resource department, will be in charge of all of the following facets of the new performance management system EXCEPT
a. determining the timing of the performance appraisals.
b. ensuring that performance standards are clearly communicated to employees.
c. linking performance appraisal information to training and development efforts.
d. linking performance appraisal information to the company's compensation system.
e. collecting employees' performance information on a day-to-day basis.

e. collecting employees' performance information on a day-to-day basis.

Refer to Scenario 10.1. Given Tent-Stations' work structure, what additional source of performance information may be critical in assessing employee performance?
a. Supervisors
b. Peers
c. Customers
d. Self
e. Top management

b. Peers

Refer to Scenario 10.1. Considering the team-based approach used by Tent-Stations, which method for appraising performance would likely be the WORST choice?
a. 360-degree feedback
b. Simple ranking
c. Critical incident
d. BARS
e. MBO

b. Simple ranking

Refer to Scenario 10.1. By considering employees behaviors that go beyond their formal job duties, what aspect of performance is being included in the new performance management system?
a. Contextual performance
b. Strategic performance
c. Behavioral performance
d. Critical performance
e. Global performance

a. Contextual performance

Refer to Scenario 10.1. Ellen would like to ensure that Tent-Stations employees who are asked to do performance appraisals are as accurate as possible. All BUT which of the following actions may be helpful in this regard?
a. Frame-of-reference training
b. Rewards for raters who do a good job of performance appraisal
c. Rater-accuracy training
d. Elimination of any threat of punishment for raters who do a poor job of performance appraisal
e. Reinforcement to raters of the importance of performance appraisal

d. Elimination of any threat of punishment for raters who do a poor job of performance appraisal

Appraisals play a role in the performance management process, but such feedback does not directly impact compensation decisions.

F

The supervisor is typically the rater in the performance appraisal process.

T

A 360-degree evaluation only uses information collected from people working below the person being rated.

F

In the paired comparison method of performance appraisal, a manager places employees in a simple rank-order

F

A critical incident is an example of particularly good or bad employee performance.

T

Central tendency occurs when a manager rates all employees as average.

F

Contextual performance is comprised of requirements of a job that an employee accomplishes or performs.

F

Another name for contextual performance is organizational citizenship behavior.

T

The first stage of the traditional model of career stages is called exploration.

T

Career counseling usually occurs between an employee and an in-house clinical psychologist.

F

The process of dealing with individuals in a company who are represented by a union is called:
a. labor relations.
b. benchmarking.
c. total quality management.
d. management by objectives.
e. negotiated contracting.

a. labor relations.

____ is the process by which managers and union representatives negotiate the terms and conditions of employment.
a. Benchmarking
b. Total quality management
c. Negotiated contracting
d. Management by objectives
e. Collective bargaining

e. Collective bargaining

Which of the following acts required management to bargain with labor unions in good faith?
a. Taft-Hartley Act
b. Wagner Act
c. Landrum-Griffin Act
d. Sherman Act
e. Union Shop Act

b. Wagner Act

Which of the following acts required labor unions to bargain with management in good faith?
a. Taft-Hartley Act
b. Wagner Act
c. Landrum-Griffin Act
d. Sherman Act
e. Union Shop Act

a. Taft-Hartley Act

Overall, union membership since 1955 has been
a. holding steady.
b. increasing greatly.
c. constant.
d. erratic.
e. decreasing at an alarming rate.

d. erratic.

The earliest unions to be developed in the United States represented specific types of workers and were known as
a. professional networks.
b. job societies.
c. worker permit groups.
d. trade associations.
e. craft unions.

e. craft unions.

The first major union to have a significant impact in the United States was called the
a. American Federation of Labor.
b. Knights of Labor.
c. Congress of Industrial Organizations.
d. Captains of Workers.
e. Labor Club Organization.

b. Knights of Labor.

The American Federation of Labor focused on what types of work?
a. Blue-collar jobs
b. Craft-based jobs
c. Professional-level jobs
d. Secretarial jobs
e. White-collar jobs

b. Craft-based jobs

The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 outlawed
a. union membership.
b. collective bargaining.
c. union shops.
d. union stewards.
e. union negotiations of working conditions.

c. union shops.

The Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 requires national labor unions to elect new leaders every ____ years.
a. two
b. three
c. five
d. ten
e. fifteen

c. five

Which of the following is the MOST accurate statement?
a. Union-management relations are more hostile today than they were in the past.
b. Unions are more powerful today than in the past, compared to the power of employers.
c. Unions today rarely struggle with traditional, basic issues, such as wages.
d. As unions have become smaller, their power has diminished.
e. Employers today are controlled almost completely by powerful unions, due to increased regulation of business.

d. As unions have become smaller, their power has diminished.

Which of the following issues are receiving more attention from unions in recent years?
a. Wages and hours
b. Health benefits
c. Pension benefits and job security
d. Union membership
e. New labor legislation

c. Pension benefits and job security

Once a bargaining unit has been determined, what is the next step in the unionization process?
a. Having to get 30 percent of eligible workers to sign authorization cards
b. Conducting a secret ballot election
c. Petitioning the NLRB to hold an election
d. Instituting grievance procedures for dispute resolution
e. Collective bargaining over a labor contract

a. Having to get 30 percent of eligible workers to sign authorization cards

Which of the following is necessary in order for decertification to occur?
a. The union must have served as the collective bargaining agent for the employees for at least one year.
b. No labor contract can currently be in force.
c. A majority of the members of the bargaining unit must vote for decertification.
d. All of these.
e. Both the union must have served as the collective bargaining agent for the employees for at least one year and no labor contract can currently be in force.

e. Both the union must have served as the collective bargaining agent for the employees for at least one year and no labor contract can currently be in force.

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